Volume 3 - 2018 -

1. Additional notes on Conchomyces bursiformis (Agaricales), a rare monotypic agaric from India

Authors: Manoj Kumar A, Bijeesh C, Vrinda KB and Pradeep CK

Recieved: 25 September 2017, Accepted: 05 October 2017, Published: 25 January 2018

Ample quantities of a crepidotoid agaric were collected from an evergreen forest in Kerala State, India and subsequent morphological and molecular analysis based on nLSU sequence confirmed it as Conchomyces bursiformis. A reappraisal along with comprehensive description, photographs, and discussion of this rare monotypic agaric is provided.

Keywords: Agaricus – Crepidotus – Kerala – nLSU – taxonomy


2. Protein enrichment of cassava pulp by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger

Authors: Yafetto L

Recieved: 03 November 2017, Accepted: 16 January 2018, Published: 07 February 2018

This study aimed to assess protein enrichment of sterile and non-sterile cassava pulp using four strains of Aspergillus niger – AN1, AN2, AN3, AN4. First, studies were conducted to evaluate nutritional requirements of A. niger strains and their suitability for protein enrichment of cassava pulp. Second, sterile and non-sterile cassava pulps were inoculated with spores of A. niger strains and incubated under conditions of solid-state fermentation for 8 days using standard methods. Protein contents of sterile and non-sterile cassava pulps were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Initial nutritional requirements studies showed that A. niger strains grew at rates between 2.0 cm and 8.5 cm over 10 days on potato dextrose agar medium of different pH. The dry weight of mycelia of A. niger strains varied in liquid media separately supplemented with different concentrations of thiamine, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. A. niger strains also showed different levels of sporulation when cultured in growth media supplemented with different concentrations of sodium chloride. Increases in protein contents of sterile cassava pulp by AN1, AN2, AN3 and AN4 were 15.65%, 22.61%, 18.30% and 19.13%, respectively. On non-sterile cassava pulp, the increases in protein content by AN1, AN2, AN3 and AN4 were 15.40%, 21.54%, 10.80% and 3.85%, respectively. A. niger strain AN2 was the most suitable strain for the enrichment of protein content of cassava because it sparsely produced spores, it had the highest mycelial growth and resulted in the greatest increase in protein content of both sterile and non-sterile cassava pulp.

Keywords: agro-industrial wastes – livestock feed – nutrient improvement – solid-substrate fermentation


3. Fungal species consortia on Nypa fruticans at Brunei

Authors: Sarma VV, Hyde KD

Recieved: 20 August 2017, Accepted: 10 January 2018, Published: 21 February 2018

Studies on fungal species consortia of manglicolous fungi are very few. Observations of fungal species consortia may provide an idea on the fungal community structures and help in understanding ecosystem dynamics. In this paper, the fungal species consortia recorded on Nypa fruticans at Brunei is presented. Astrosphaeriella striatispora, Linocarpon appendiculatum, L. bipolaris, Neolinocarpon globosicarpa, Oxydothis nypae and Trichocladium nypae, were the frequently recorded fungi in this study. Three distinct fungal assemblages were found. One of these assemblages was typified by Astrosphaeriella striatispora, Linocarpon nypae and Oxydothis nypae in which the fungi occurred both in association with others as well as singly indicating a commensalistic occurrence. The second assemblage, was characterized by Linocarpon appendiculatum and Linocarpon bipolaris, the fungi occurred almost only in association with others, indicating a mutualistic behavior. The third assemblage was characterized by Anthostomella eructans, Anthostomella sp. and Trichocladium sp. which always occurred singly, indicating a possible antagonistic life style but the percentage occurrence of the last group was far low to attribute any antagonistic potential of these fungi in preventing other fungi from colonization.

Keywords: co-occurrence – ecology – interactions – mangroves – marine fungi


4. Curvularia martyniicola, a new species of foliicolous hyphomycetes on Martynia annua from India

Authors: Kumar S, Singh R

Recieved: 03 November 2017, Accepted: 21 February 2018, Published: 22 February 2018

In the micromycofloristic survey of some dematiaceous hyphomycetes from the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh (India), an undescribed species (C. martyniicola) of anamorphic fungus Curvularia Boedijn was found on living leaves of Martynia annua (Martyniaceae). The novel fungus is described, illustrated and discussed in details. The present species is compared with earlier reported similar taxon, and is characterized by longer conidiophores and conidia with less septa. A key is provided to all the species of Curvularia recorded on Martyniaceae and Pedaliaceae. The details of nomenclatural novelties were deposited in MycoBank (www.MycoBank.org).

Keywords: Curvularia – foliar disease – hyphomycetes – mycodiversity – taxonomy


5. First record of Mayamontana coccolobae (Stephanosporaceae: Agaricales) from Mexico

Authors: de la Fuente JI, Guevara-Guerrero G, López CY, García-Jiménez J

Recieved: 31 January 2018, Accepted: 20 March 2018, Published: 27 March 2018

Mayamontana coccolobae Castellano, Trappe and Lodge is described for the first time from Mexico and the second time worldwide. It is characterized by the orange, subhypogeous basidiomata and the wrinkled subglobose spores with conspicuous hilar appendix. It is not a very common species in the region and is recorded from disturbed lowland forest and urban gardens. Mayamontana coccolobae was only known from the type locality but now extends its geographical distribution to southeast Mexico.

Keywords: Macrofungi – Truffles – Truffle-like Fungi – Yucatán Peninsula


6. Review of the lichen genus Usnea in the Philippines

Authors: Galinato MGM, Baguinon JRC, Santiago KAA

Recieved: 15 January 2018, Accepted: 17 April 2018, Published: 23 April 2018

The fruticose lichen Usnea is a cosmopolitan genus also found in the mountains of the Philippines. Despite its abundance, though, this lichen genus is not extensively studied in the country. Since the Philippine Usnea holds great potential in pharmaceutical and agricultural research, the basic knowledge on this lichen is important to establish. Therefore, this paper takes a detailed review of Usnea in the Philippines and summarizes all the literatures that have been conducted on it in all aspects. Further, the provinces that were already reported of the occurrence of this genus are plotted in one figure to also highlight those that have not been explored yet. Currently, 81 species of Usnea were reported in the country. This includes a species that was previously under the genus Usnea but has been arguably reclassified to a different genus in the present (i.e., Eumitria). This review also hopes to direct future studies regarding Usnea.

Keywords: biodiversity – checklist – distribution – fungal taxonomy – fruticose


7. Morphotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Saprolegnia ferax from India

Authors: Singh PN, Singh SK, Lagashetti AC, Ackah FK

Recieved: 10 April 2018, Accepted: 24 May 2018, Published: 02 May 2018

Saprolegnia ferax is isolated from polluted water sample collected from Mula River, Pune, Maharashtra, India. The isolated taxon is illustrated and compared with the morphotaxonomy based first record of Indian S. ferax isolated by Wani et al. (2017). The present study deals with the re-description of the isolated taxon S. ferax based on detail morphological features, sequence analysis and phylogeny of ITS and LSU regions of rDNA.

Keywords: ITS and LSU rDNA – Morphotaxonomy – Oomycete – Saprolegnia


8. Phosphate solubilization potential of native rhizospheric microflora and their impact on growth of Madhuca latifolia (Mahua): An oil yielding medicinal plant of India

Authors: Mishra S, Pany S, Gupta N

Recieved: 16 February 2018, Accepted: 27 March 2018, Published: 11 May 2018

Madhuca latifolia is an economically important medicinal and oil yielding plant of India having slow growth rate. As microbial application to the rhizosphere of host plant are beneficial for growth and development of plants, a comprehensive experimental study by using native microflora of Madhuca latifolia had been carried out in the nursery conditions. Isolation and identification of native rhizospheric soil revealed the occurrence of 17 different types of bacteria (gram negative and positive) and 30 numbers of fungi belonging to myceloid type, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Fusarium and Penicillium. Present study was confined to phosphate solubilizing microbes for which solubilization potential (solubilization index and solubilization efficiency) was evaluated. Inoculation experiments in pot culture with red laterite soil were set in two experimental categories (1) non-transplanted and (2) transplanted. Plants grown under both the conditions with and without microbial application were maintained up to 120 days and final data recorded for morphological, physiological growth and as soil parameters. The mineral solubilizing potential of native microbial strains has been expressed. Fungal inoculants were more effective than the bacterial inoculants as far as the growth and development of plants concerned. Among all, bacteria MLB-1, MLB-6, Aspergillus terreus and non-sporulating dematiaceous form of fungi were prominent in improving plant growth. This has also been confirmed the useful and beneficial impact of indigenous organism. The records made during the study is useful for development of bioinoculants for forest trees, nursery of quality planting material which will also helps in establishment at plantation site.

Keywords: Bacteria – bioinoculants – forest trees – fungi – Madhuca latifolia – phosphate solubilization


9. Ascobolus gomayapriya: A new coprophilous fungus from Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Niranjan M, Sarma VV

Recieved: 14 January 2018, Accepted: 26 April 2018, Published: 16 May 2018

Ascobolus is a very large genus among coprophilous fungi colonizing dung. There are very few workers who have explored dung fungi from India. During a recent trip to Andaman Islands, examination of cow dung samples revealed a new coprophilous fungus in the genus Ascobolus and the same has been reported in this paper. The present new species A. gomayapriya colonizes and grows on cow dung. A. gomayapriya is characterized by stalked, light-greenish-yellow apothecial ascomata, long cylindrical, short pedicellate asci with rounded apical caps, positive bluing reaction to Lougal’s reagent, ascospores that are hyaline to pale yellow red, smooth, cylindrical, thick-walled with two layers, sparsely dotted verruculose surface, very thin crevices.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – Dung fungi – Pezizomycetidae – Pezizales – Taxonomy


10. Two more bird’s nest fungi from cold desert of Ladakh, India

Authors: Yangdol R, Kumar S, Sharma YP

Recieved: 30 August 2018, Accepted: 11 May 2018, Published: 17 May 2018

Two taxa of Agaricaceae viz., Cyathus colensoi and Cyathus renweii collected from Leh district of Ladakh were described and illustrated. Of these, C. renweii is a new report to India and C. colensoi is being reported for the first time from Jammu and Kashmir.

Keywords: Agaricaceae – Ladakh – New records – Taxonomy


11. Diversity of endophytic phosphate solubilising fungi associated with Pomatocalpa decipiens (Lindl.) J.J. Smith – an endangered orchid in Barbara forest of Odisha, India

Authors: Sahoo HR, Gupta N

Recieved: 27 March 2018, Accepted: 01 May 2018, Published: 24 May 2018

Investigations were done to obtain potential phosphate solubilising strains from endophytic mycoflora isolated from the orchid, Pomatocalpa decipiens. 928 endophytic phosphate solubilising fungal isolates were obtained from 2400 leaf segments (0.38% recovery) from rare epiphytic orchid Pomatocalpa decipiens present in the Barbara hills of Odisha (India). A number of isolates belonged to different genera such as Paecilomyces, Curvularia, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Colletotrichum, while others, which were unidentified were classified as mycelia sterilia. Root sampling done from 25 different sites resulted in isolation of 20 endophytic phosphate solubilising fungal isolates from 300 segments (0.1% recovery). Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Fusarium, Penicillium, and mycelia sterilia were mostly obtained. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of Phosphate (P) solubilisation were performed using TCP and Rock phosphate as P source for those strains. Aspergillus niger (leaf isolate) showed a maximum of 33.2 and 22.7 % solubilisation in presence of TCP and Rock phosphate respectively whereas Aspergillus niger (Root isolate) showed a maximum of about 23.9% and 36.2% solubilisation in presence of TCP and Rock phosphate respectively.

Keywords: Fungal endophytes – Phosphate solubilisation – Rock phosphate – Tricalcium Phosphate


12. New additions of macrolichens to the lichen flora of Arunachal Pradesh, India in Eastern Himalaya

Authors: Debnath R, Khare R, Gogoi L, Upreti DK, Rout J

Recieved: 05 September 2017, Accepted: 27 April 2018, Published: 28 May 2018

Lichen exploration of West Kameng district and Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh state, India located in the Eastern Himalayas reveal seventy nine lichens represented primarily by foliose (73%), a few fruticose (15%), dimorphic (8%), leprose (2%) and crustose (1%) types. Of these, seventeen species, one fruticose, sixteen foliose growth forms, belonging to 12 genera and 5 families are recorded as new additions to the lichen flora of Arunachal Pradesh state. The lichens were sampled at an elevation ranging from 1618 meter to 4509 meter. The diagnostic features of new additions to macrolichens of Arunachal Pradesh based on the phytogeographic affinities and distribution of species is briefly described.

Keywords: Foliose – Fruticose – Elevation – Distribution


13. Kamalomyces polyseptatus sp. nov. from an unidentified bamboo twig in Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Niranjan M, Sarma VV

Recieved: 12 April 2018, Accepted: 05 June 2018, Published: 08 June 2018

The examination of decaying twig samples fallen on the forest floor in the Andaman Islands, India yielded a new fungal species in the genus Kamalomyces (Tubeufiaceae). The new species, Kamalomyces polyseptatus is described in this paper supported by photomicrographs. The novel species is characterized by superficial, scattered, globose to sub-globose, dark brown to black ascomata covered by dense black mycelium, clavate asci, vermiform, elongate, transverse septate, hyaline ascospores. The new species K. polyseptatus is easily distinguishable from other species of the genus by the presence of higher number of septa in the ascospores. A synopsis of salient features of different species of Kamalomycesis provided along with a dichotomous key to the known species of Kamalomyces. 

Keywords: Bamboo twigs – Dothideomycetes – Taxonomy – Tubeufiaceae


14. Tulostoma reticulatum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a rare stalked puffball reported from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

Authors: Lima AA, Baseia IG

Recieved: 20 April 2018, Accepted: 12 May 2018, Published: 08 June 2018

Tulostoma reticulatum, until this report only found occurring on the Australian mainland, was found growing in sandy soil of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. The specimens are described and illustrated macro- and micro-morphologically, and data on taxonomy, distribution and ecology are given. This is the first record of this species outside Australia.

Keywords: Biodiversity – Gasteromycetes – Neotropics – Taxonomy – Tulostomataceae


15. Endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves, stems and roots of four medicinal plants in South China

Authors: Li T, Deng WQ, Li TH, Zhang WM, Hosen MI, Song B

Recieved: 04 May 2018, Accepted: 31 May 2018, Published: 22 June 2018

Amomum villosum, Aquilaria sinensis, Morinda officinalis, and Pogostemon cablin are well-known medicinal plants in South China for their particular pharmacological activities, but their endophytic fungi have been rarely reported. Here, the endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves, stems, and roots of the four medicinal plant species were investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. From the four medicinal plant species, a total of 169,149 sequences (reads) of endophytic fungi were harvested and clustered into 791 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Kingdom Fungi. These OTUs taxonomically spanned five phyla, 27 classes, 75 orders, 167 families, and 291 genera. At the genus level, Phyllosticta, Candida, Zasmidium, and Cryptococcus were the major genera detected in A. villosum; Nigrospora, Tylopilus, Arthrobotrys, Coniosporium, and Corynespora were the dominant genera isolated in A. sinensis; Ochroconis, Cercospora, Aspergillus, and Cyphellophora were the dominant genera detected in M. officinalis; and Cladophialophora, Meira, Sakaguchia, and Penicillium were the major genera isolated in P. cablin. Among the four medicinal plant species, M. officinalis had the highest endophytic fungal diversity (H′>4.25), however A. sinensis had the lowest (H′<2.37). There were significant differences in endophytic fungal communities among different organs in the same plant species.

Keywords: Amomum villosum – diversity – endophytes – Morinda officinalis – traditional Chinese medicine


16. Diaporthe collariana sp. nov., with prominent collarettes associated with Magnolia champaca fruits in Thailand

Authors: Perera RH, Hyde KD, Dissanayake AJ, Jones EB, Liu JK, Wei D, Liu ZY

Recieved: 24 December 2017, Accepted: 08 June 2018, Published: 29 June 2018

We are studying seed and fruit inhabiting fungi in Thailand and this paper introduces a new species, Diaporthe collariana, from Magnolia champaca fruits, collected in Chiang Rai Province. Molecular analysis of a combined ITS, TEF1, TUB and CAL sequence DNA and morphological data provide evidence to justify the new species. Diaporthe collariana is characterized by producing alpha and beta conidia, and conidiogenous cells with prominent, flared collarettes. The new species is compared with closely related species in the genus.

Keywords: Diaporthaceae – morphology – new species – phylogeny – seed/fruit fungi


17. Taxonomic circumscription and phylogenetics of novel didymellaceous taxa with brown muriform spores

Authors: Wanasinghe DN, Jeewon R, Peršoh D, Jones EBG, Camporesi E, Bulgakov TS, Gafforov YS, Hyde KD

Recieved: 04 March 2018, Accepted: 28 May 2018, Published: 29 June 2018

Sexual morph of didymellaceous taxa are characterized by their ascomata with relatively thin peridium, cylindric-clavate to clavate, short-pedicellate or apedicellate asci, hyaline to brown, 1-septate to muriform ascospores. Its asexual morphs are coelomycetous and comprising pycnidial or acervulus conidiomata, phialidic, hyaline conidiogenous cells and hyaline or pale brown, septate or aseptate conidia. The majority of these cosmopolitan species are plant associated fungi which can be pathogens on a wide range of hosts and some species are of particular relevance for quarantine measures. Recent studies have significantly improved the taxonomy and systematics of didymellaceous taxa based on molecular phylogenetics. In contrast to the accurate and detailed studies on the asexual morphs which are common obligate pathogens, information on their usually saprobic sexual morphs is still limited. Among these phenotypically diverse species, spore characteristics are quite unique as most have hyaline spores with 0–1 septum, while only Neomicrosphaeropsis and Didymellocamarosporium are reported as producing pigmented, muriform spores. These dematiaceous muriform spores are characteristic of a considerable number of species that may be quite divergent in other characters. During taxonomic investigations on the diversity of didymellaceous taxa, we have isolated species from Alhagi pseudalhagi, Coronilla emerus, Cytisus sp., Elaeagnus angustifolia and Spartium junceum in Italy, Russia and Uzbekistan. A comprehensive phylogeny, based on four loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2) is used to infer species relationships. Comprehensive morphological descriptions and in-depth phylogenetic investigations of five new species viz. Ascochyta coronillae-emeri, Microsphaeropsis spartii-juncei, Neomicrosphaeropsis alhagi-pseudalhagi, N. cytisicola and N. elaeagni are presented.

Keywords: five new species – coelomycetes – Italy – multi-gene – phylogeny – Pleosporales – Russia – saprobic – taxonomic-ambiguity – Uzbekistan


18. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial wastes for protein enrichment by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger

Authors: Adu SK, Yafetto L, Ofosuhene A, Offei-Affedzie T, Adu S, Ntibe TN

Recieved: 30 April 2018, Accepted: 29 June 2018, Published: 10 July 2018

This study is to assess the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) for protein enrichment by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. Spore suspensions of A. niger were prepared with potato dextrose broth that had been supplemented with sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate and thiamine, and adjusted to pH of 5. Initial protein contents of sterile and non-sterile wastes of the pineapple, sweet potato, and watermelon were determined by the Kjeldahl method. The remaining sterile and non-sterile wastes was inoculated with spore suspensions of A. niger and incubated at temperature of 24°C under conditions of solid-state fermentation for 14 days. Protein contents of the inoculated sterile and non-sterile wastes were determined after 7 and 14 days. The sterile wastes of pineapple, sweet potato and watermelon recorded initial percentage protein contents of 4.37, 4.39, and 10.89, respectively, whereas their corresponding non-sterile wastes recorded initial percentage protein contents of 3.76, 4.00, and 10.16, respectively. The results further show that percentage increase in protein content of sterile wastes after 14 days of fermentation were pineapple, 35.01%; sweet potato, 27.60%; and watermelon, 64.40%. Percentage increase in protein content of non-sterile wastes after 14 days of fermentation were pineapple, 72.34%; sweet potato, 85.25%; and watermelon, 80.51%. These findings affirm the biotechnological potential of pineapple, sweet potato and watermelon wastes and the importance of fungi as agents for protein enrichment of agro-industrial wastes.

Keywords: agro-based wastes – fungal biotechnology – nutrient enrichment – solid-substrate fermentation – value addition


19. First record of Leucoagaricus lilaceus (Agaricales: Agaricomycetes) in Mexico

Authors: de la Fuente JI, Hernández-Del Valle JF, Aguirre-Acosta CE, García-Jiménez J

Recieved: 07 June 2018, Accepted: 29 June 2018, Published: 11 July 2018

Leucoagaricus lilaceus is recorded for the first time in Mexico. This species is characterized by the purplish pileus, whitish to pinkish gills and a wide bulbose base. The next record represents the northernmost distribution of this species so far in America. Microscopic and macroscopic features are described and illustrated.

Keywords: Lepiotoid Fungi – Macrofungi – Quintana Roo – Tamaulipas – Yucatán Peninsula


20. Additions to wild seed and fruit fungi 2: Parascedosporium putredinis: a new Thailand record from Delonix regia seed pods

Authors: Perera RH, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu JK, Liu ZY

Recieved: 25 May 2018, Accepted: 09 July 2018, Published: 18 July 2018

We are studying seed pod fungi associated with Delonix regia in Thailand and in this paper we provide an illustrated account of Parascedosporium putredinis, which is a new record for Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS and LSU sequence data and morphological similarities provide evidence for its identification. We illustrate the synnematal stage and lateral, solitary conidiophores of P. putredinis obtained in vitro on MEA. We also provide ITS, LSU, SSU, and tef sequence data for P. putredinis, which are deposited in GenBank.

Keywords: graphium-like – Microascaceae – morphology – phylogeny – Sordariomycetes


21. A checklist of polypores of Kerala state, India

Authors: Adarsh CK, Vidyasagran K, Ganesh PN

Recieved: 10 May 2018, Accepted: 09 July 2018, Published: 18 July 2018

A literature-based checklist of polypores reported from Kerala State, India is deduced. Altogether 148 species of polypores under 8 families belonging to 68 genera are recorded. The checklist is prepared after reviewing all the available literature and most of them have been published during the last two decades. The geographical distribution of polypores is presented districts wise, including all the 14 districts of Kerala state. The family Polyporaceae has the highest number of species (80), followed by Hymenochaetaceae (37), Fomitopsidaceae (9), Meripilaceae (7), Ganodermataceae (7), Meruliaceae (5), Schizoporaceae (2) and Phanerochaetaceae with a single species. The genus Trametes had the highest representation with 16 species followed by Lentinus and Phellinus with 13 species each.  There is no comprehensive studies have been undertaken on the diversity, distribution and functional attributes of polypore fungi in Kerala parts of Western Ghats, which undoubtedly hosting the highest mycodiversity This list is inconclusive and covers only a part of the actual diversity of polypores in Kerala as most of the forest areas are unexplored for the polypore diversity documentation. 

Keywords: Basidiomycota – Diversity – Polyporales – Kerala – Forest


22. New distribution record of Cyathus stercoreus (Schwein.) De Toni (Nidulariaceae) for India from Gujarat state

Authors: Patel RS, Vasava AM, Rajput KS

Recieved: 30 December 2017, Accepted: 30 July 2018, Published: 06 August 2018

Cyathus stercoreus (Schwein.)  De Toni (Nidulariaceae) was collected from Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary from the Narmada districts of Gujarat state, India. Present study reports C. stercoreus as a new distribution record from the Gujarat state. It was identified by using morphological features and further confirmation was carried out by using molecular methods with its DNA barcoding. Nucleotide sequence is submitted into NCBI and molecular data are submitted into BOLD data system for DNA barcoding.

Keywords: Cyathus – DNA barcoding – Gujarat – Nidulariaceae


23. A new record to rust fungi of North Western Himalayas (Himachal Pradesh), India

Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S

Recieved: 28 June 2018, Accepted: 31 August 2018, Published: 06 August 2018

A rust fungus occurring on bamboo leaves from Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, North India is described and illustrated. A critical morphological and microscopic examination revealed it to be Kweilingia divina. It is the synonym of Dasturella divina, the type species for the fungal genus Dasturella, named in 1943 from infected leaf samples of bamboo (Bambusa sp.). After conducting a literature survey it was found that this fungus is the first to be reported from North Western Himalayas. A detailed taxonomic description of this fungus along with its distribution is provided. 

Keywords: bamboo – Puccinales – systematics – taxonomy


24. Effects of environmental factors and host characteristics on diversity and distribution of wood-rotting fungi of Mount Puliebadze, Nagaland

Authors: Chuzho K, Dkhar MS

Recieved: 20 July 2018, Accepted: 08 August 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

The study on the effects of environmental factors and host characteristics on diversity and distribution of wood-rotting fungi Mount Puliebadze, Nagaland was carried out for a period of two successive years (January 2015 to December 2016). A total of 46 wood-rotting fungi belonging to 16 families were identified. The occurrence of wood-rotting fungi demonstrated a decreasing trend with increase in elevations and correlation between the two variables showed a strong negative correlation with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) value of -0.993. The zone with lowest elevation (zone 1) comprised maximum number of species (25 species) whereas the zone with highest elevation (zone 4) comprised minimum number of species (05 species). Highest species similarity percentage (25.9%) was observed between zone 2 and 3. One way ANOVA showed significant variations between the occurrence of wood-rotting fungi with different seasons, light intensity, type of substrata and decay stage of wood. Shannon’s diversity index (H’) of zone 1 was highest (H’= 3.073) and that of zone 4 was lowest (H’ = 1.242).

Keywords: Correlation – ecology – elevation – Non-matric Multidimensional Scaling


25. Temperature-water and competitive interactions in vitro of two toxic black molds, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer isolated from a shower setting

Authors: Yoder JA, Klever LA, Dobrotka CJ

Recieved: 15 June 2018, Accepted: 14 August 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

We report differences in secondary resource capture and upper lethal temperature as survival attributes for Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) and Rhizopus stolonifer, two medically important fungi that were co-isolated from a table shower caddy. Isolates of these two shower-associated fungi have been deposited at the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection and Herbarium, Centre for Global Microfungal Biodiversity (UAMH, Toronto, CAN) as R. stolonifer UAMH 11965 and F. oxysporum (FOSC) UAMH 11966; this paper provides growth characteristics for these two strains that can be used for further studies on black molds in bathrooms given the relevance to public health. Both R. stolonifer UAMH 11965 and F. oxysporum (FOSC) UAMH 11966 require contact with a wet surface substrate with water activity ≥ 0.95 aw for growth and sporulation. In contrast to F. oxysporum, R. stolonifer has a 4-6x, faster radial growth rate, superior colonizing ability, and capacity for overgrowth (exploitative competition). This F. oxysporum (FOSC) strain, however, is thermotolerant, as demonstrated by broader thermal growth range and higher optimum temperature, which puts fewer limitations on its growth compared to R. stolonifer. This is a point of public awareness for mold-sensitive and immunocompromised people that wet, wood substrates in a shower can permit colonization and competitive interactions that can concentrate R. stolonifer and F. oxysporum spores. 

Keywords: Bathroom – fungal ecology – public health – radial growth – resource capture


26. Cyathus tenuicorticalis (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a new species from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

Authors: Góis JS, Cruz RHSF, Ovrebo CL, Baseia IG

Recieved: 31 May 2018, Accepted: 15 August 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

Cyathus tenuicorticalis was found growing on decaying wood from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Specimens were analyzed using the methodology proposed for the group and specific literature for the genus. The fundamental diagnostic features for this new species are the very thin double-layered cortex in peridioles, exoperidium strongly hirsute, and a platinum bright endoperidium. Description, discussion and photographs of this new species are provided. 

Keywords: Biodiversity – Bird’s nest fungi – Gasteriod fungi – Nidulariaceae – Taxonomy


27. First report of lichens from St. Mary’s Islands, the south west coast, India

Authors: Joseph S, Dudani SN, Nayaka S

Recieved: 02 August 2018, Accepted: 17 August 2018, Published: 24 August 2018

The paper presents the first ever report on lichens of St. Mary’s Island with a total of 20 species belonging to 13 genera. Two species, Pertusaria dehiscens var. sekikaica A.W. Archer & Elix and Porina howeana P.M. McCarthy are reported as new records for India. Rhizocarpon obscuratum (Ach.) A. Massal. is recorded after a gap of 52 years.

Keywords: Biodiversity – coastal lichens – Karnataka state – lichenized Ascomycota – new records


28. Species of Boletaceae (Boletales, Basidiomycota) with ornamented spores from temperate forests at the state of Oaxaca, Mexico

Authors: Ayala-Vásquez O, Valenzuela R, Aguirre-Acosta E, Raymundo T, García-Jiménez J

Recieved: 05 July 2018, Accepted: 31 July 2018, Published: 28 August 2018

Ten species of Boletaceae with ornamented basidiospores are described and illustrated from temperate forests in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Boletellus ananiceps is recorded for the first time in Mexico, and Austroboletus gracilis, Boletellus flocculosipes, B. chrysenteroides, B. pseudochrysenteroides and Heimioporus ivoryi are first records from Oaxaca. While Aureoboletus russellii, B. coccineus, H. betula, Strobilomyces confusus only increase distribution in Oaxaca state. All species are described and illustrated and identification keys for the described genera are provided. The studied specimens were deposited in the national herbaria ENCB, ITCV and MEXU-UNAM.

Keywords: Boletes – new records – Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) – taxonomy


29. Antifungal activities and phytochemical screening of two invasive alien species of Nepal

Authors: Das RK, Devkota A

Recieved: 05 January 2018, Accepted: 30 August 2018, Published: 05 September 2018

The antifungal activities and phytochemical screening of two invasive alien species: Ageratina adenophora and Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa of Nepal were studied. Distilled water and methanolic extract of the leaves of plants were tested against five phytopathogenic fungi viz. Alternaria brassicae, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici and Sclerotium rolfsii at five different concentrations (50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml). The antifungal activity was performed by poisoned food technique; and linear mycelium growth reduction (LMGR) percentage was calculated. A qualitative phytochemical screening was performed for constituents such as tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids. The methanolic extract was more efficient as compared to the distilled water extract. A. brassicae, B. cinerea and S. rolfsii were found the most resistant fungi and F. oxysporum was found the most susceptible fungus. Out of two plants, A. adenophora was found more active against selected pathogens than Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa. It can be concluded that the tested plants possess antifungal properties which may be used as alternative fungicides after further investigation.

Keywords: Ageratina adenophora – Ipomoea carnea ssp. Fistulosa – LMGR – Plant extracts


30. A note on the occurrence of lichens on Vainateya Godavari mangroves in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh India

Authors: Vinay Bharadwaj T, Girija Sastry V, Murthy KS

Recieved: 08 June 2018, Accepted: 07 September 2018, Published: 17 September 2018

During the collection of manglicolous lichens for the project work on pharmacological evaluation, three lichen species collected from a remote “Lanka” in less known Vainateya Godavari river basin in the year 2015. There is no record of any of these lichen species on the mangroves of Andhra Pradesh like Dirinaria consimilis (Stirton) D. D. Awasthi, Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale and Roccella montagnei Bel. em. D. D. Awasthi on the host is Excoecaria agallocha. Interestingly the authors find no such lichen flora even in the Coringa wild life sanctuary the second largest stretch of mangrove forests of India due to its close proximity to the port city of Kakinada.

Keywords: Andhra Pradesh – manglicolous lichens – mangrove – new records


31. Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinally important aromatic plant Gaultheria fragrantissima

Authors: Sarma P, Dkhar MS, Kayang H, Kumar M, Dubey NK, Raghuwanshi R

Recieved: 06 September 2018, Accepted: 27 September 2018, Published: 03 October 2018

A total of thirty three (33) endophytic fungi including sterile mycelia were isolated from the leaf, stem and roots of medicinally important aromatic plant Gaultheria fragrantissima. Majority of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. The total percentage colonization frequency (% CF) of each endophytic fungal species was calculated of which Juxtiphoma eupyrena showed highest colonization frequency (20.14%) in the leaf whereas Globisporangium irregulare was found to have highest colonization frequency in the stem (14.58%) and in the roots, Trichoderma viride was observed to have the highest colonization frequency of 21.43%. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots was found to be higher as compared to the other plant tissues.

Keywords: Colonization frequency – endophytic fungi – Jaccards’s index – relative abundance


32. Microfungal Community in Sandy Beaches Located in Kedah, Pahang and Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Salleh SL, Raup R, Azman N, Mohd Zainudin NAI

Recieved: 12 June 2018, Accepted: 28 September 2018, Published: 09 October 2018

Microfungi are fundamental organisms help in balancing the ecosystem. The aims of this study are to identify microfungi isolated from sandy beaches based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence analysis and to determine the phylogenetic relationship among the locations of sampling areas. Fifty-seven isolates of microfungi were obtained from six beaches located in Kedah (Chenang Beach), Pahang (Balok Beach) and Sabah (Mamutik Island, Manukan Island, Sapi Island and Tanjung Aru Beach) to be used in this study. From the finding, the highest identified species were Aspergillus species (27 isolates) followed by Trichoderma species (12 isolates), Penicillium species (10 isolates), Fusarium species (6 isolates), Bipolaris species (1 isolate) and Chaetomium species (1 isolate). ITS fragment of all isolates was amplified in within the size range of 533–658 bp. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using maximum likelihood (ML) method; the isolates were grouped into three clades according to their classes. In conclusion, diverse microfungi isolated from sandy beach soil depicting 19 species were discovered. Future studies are highly recommended to focus on intra- and interspecies diversity based on microsatellite markers analysis, consequently the originality and distribution of the fungal isolates. The outcome of this study includes a baseline data on the occurrence and species-diversity as well as important information on the status of microfungi in Malaysia beaches located in Kedah, Melaka and Sabah. It can be used as a checklist for future studies related to fungi distribution in the tropical beaches.

Keywords: Ecology – environmental mycology – fungi – identification – microbial phylogenetics


33. Fungal contaminations of indoor and outdoor air of buildings of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Authors: Yafetto L, Adator EH

Recieved: 15 August 2018, Accepted: 09 October 2018, Published: 19 October 2018

The presence of microscopic spores in the air affects the quality of air inhaled by animals including humans. Microbial contamination of air impacts the well-being of occupants of an indoor environment, sometimes with dire consequences. The study investigated fungal contaminations of indoor and outdoor air of the Hospital, Library and Senior Common Room (SCR) of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Indoor and outdoor air was sampled using the Koch’s sedimentation method. Colony forming units per cubic meter of air (cfu/m3) were determined with the Omeliansky formula. The isolated fungi were identified based on morphological and growth characteristics. For indoor air, the least colony counts were recorded in the SCR for both morning and afternoon samples, whilst the Hospital air had the highest colony counts. For outdoor air, the colony counts were lower in SCR and the Library for both morning and afternoon samples compared to the Hospital. The results further indicated that indoor concentrations of fungi, for morning and afternoon, ranged between 4.0x104 and 2.1x105 cfu/m3, whereas outdoor concentrations of fungi ranged between 1.1x105 and 3.0x105 cfu/m3, revealing an overall higher levels of contamination of outdoor air than indoor air at all the three buildings. Consequently, estimated indoor/outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios of fungi revealed an exogenous source of indoor contaminations at all the three buildings sampled. Fungi isolated from indoor and outdoor air were of the genera Aspergillus, Curvularia, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Mucor, Neurospora, Penicillium and Rhodotorula. We conclude that indoor and outdoor air of the buildings sampled were contaminated with airborne fungi; however, based on estimated I/O ratios, the indoor ambient conditions of the buildings were good. The implication of findings of this study is that the presence of airborne fungal contaminants of indoor and outdoor workplace environment may pose serious occupational health consequences, hence low productivity. 

Keywords: airborne fungi – Ghana – indoor air quality – microbial contaminants – occupational health – workplace environment


34. New record of Chalastospora gossypii from cold arid soil of the most isolated region in trans-Himalayas

Authors: Nonzom S, Sumbali G

Recieved: 04 September 2018, Accepted: 04 November 2018, Published: 06 December 2018

A psychrotolerant hyphomycete Chalastospora gossypii was recovered from cold arid soil of Zanskar valley (3,500 msl), which is the most isolated region located in the trans-Himalayas that presents extreme environmental challenges for biotic system including microfungi. Complete description and illustration of the fungus based on morphology and rRNA gene sequences in ITS regions are provided. The report represents a new record in Indian sub-continent and reflects the ability of the reported fungus to thrive in extreme habitats of Indian sub-continent thus representing a new addition to cold desert as well as Indian mycoflora.

Keywords: Chalastospora gossypii – India – new record – taxonomic description


35. New and noteworthy records of lichens from Pathanamthitta district, Kerala, India

Authors: Zachariah SA, Nayaka S, Joseph S, Gupta P, Thomas S, Varghese SK

Recieved: 15 November 2018, Accepted: 17 December 2018, Published: 24 December 2018

Lichen biota of Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state was thoroughly studied which resulted in 24 lichen species as new to Kerala and one species, Phaeographis nylanderi (Vain.) Zahlbr. as new to India. All the species identified are either crustose or foliose forms belonging to families Graphidaceae and Caliciaceae indicating the dominance of these groups in the study area. List of all the 25 species are provided along with their distribution. 

Keywords: Biodiversity – Caliciaceae – Endemic – Graphidaceae – Lichenized fungi – Western Ghats


About Studies in Fungi

Studies In Fungi publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo blind peer review before acceptance. Studies in Fungi will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors. We have requested an ISSN number and are presently sending printed copies of each paper to 10 international libraries until this is received to fulfill the requirements of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.


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