Volume 6 - 2021
5. New host and geographic records of five pleosporalean hyphomycetes associated with Musa spp. (Banana)
Samarakoon BC et al. (2021)
3. First record of Eutypella vitis causing branch dieback on new host trees in Canada
Ilyukhin E et al. (2021)
Volume 5 - 2020
33. A review on the genus Entoloma (Basidiomycota, Entolomataceae) in Yunnan Province, China
Ediriweera AN et al. (2020)
32. Three new records of Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae) for the Turkish Mycota from Trabzon, Turkey
Sesli E, Örtücü S (2020)
31. “Ganoderma lucidum sensu lato” – a sacred mushroom for immortality
Ayesha P et al. (2020)
Volume 4 - 2019 -
Authors: Hipol RM, Baldelomar JA, Bolinget KC, Solis AFF
Recieved: 04 January 2019, Accepted: 30 January 2019, Published: 26 February 2019
Siderophores, being iron-chelators, have received much attention in environmental research, medicine, and biotechnology because of their high affinity and specificity to a wide range of metals. This study aimed to investigate siderophore production of culturable soil fungi from Mt. Yangbew, Tawang, La Trinidad, Benguet and to determine their chemical characteristics. Siderophore production was detected and quantified using Chrome Azurol Sulphonate assay while the siderophore characterization was through FeCl3, Csáky’s and Arnow’s tests. It was found that 11 out of 20 pure cultures, which showed positive CAS assay results, produce hydroxamates. ITS primers were used in PCR amplification for the molecular identification of the top-four siderophore-producers. Based on BLASTn analyses of their sequences, the isolates were found to be most homologous to species of Talaromyces, Byssochlamys, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium. The identified species were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using MEGA 7 to the show evolutionary history and relationship among the fungal species.
Keywords: CAS assay – hydroxamates – iron chelators
2. Geastrum echinulatum and G. rusticum (Geastraceae, Basidiomycota) – two new records for Central America
Authors: Freitas-Neto JF, Sousa JO, Ovrebo CL, Baseia IG
Recieved: 20 September 2018, Accepted: 06 November 2018, Published: 05 March 2019
Present work describes two new records of Geastrum species from Central America, Geastrum echinulatum (Costa Rica) and G. rusticum, (Panama). Identification of species confirmed based on the macro- and micro-morphological analyses and the published literature of the two species. Field photographs, macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, taxonomic observations and a map of collection sites are provided.
Keywords: Biodiversity – Earthstars – Fungi – Geastrales – Taxonomy
Authors: Lopes-Lima AB, Valões-Araújo JC, Wartchow F
Recieved: 12 December 2018, Accepted: 28 January 2019, Published: 05 March 2019
Phillipsia olivacea is an uncommon discomycete record from Brazil. It was described originally from South Brazil and later recorded from Central America and northern South America. Now it is found for the first time from a montane forest in the Brazilian semiarid region. Description, discussion, photography of the ascomata and drawings are provided.
Keywords: Ascomycota – Neotropic – Pezizomycetes – Sarcoscyphaceae – taxonomy
Authors: Alimadadi N, Pourianfar HR, Amoozegar MA, Zabihi SS, Mahdizadeh V, Shahzadeh Fazeli SA
Recieved: 14 January 2019, Accepted: 26 February 2019, Published: 13 March 2019
In last decades, macrofungi have attracted increasing attention because of their valuable nutritional and medicinal properties. In this study, a total of 180 macrofungal samples were collected from forests in Mazandaran province, Iran. The dominant orders were Polyporales (51%) and Agaricales (35%). Pure mycelial cultures were successfully obtained from 91 collected samples. Regarding morphological data, 47 isolates were selected for molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence analysis. The results showed that the 38 macrofungal isolates were belonging to 22 species, 19 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Most of the macrofungi (47%) were identified as Trametes species and Ganoderma species. Three isolates identified as Hohenbuehelia species, Polyporellus brumalis and Ceriporia lacerata were records as a new to the Iran fungal flora. This study increases the knowledge on Iranian macrofungal diversity and facilitates future genetic and biotechnological investigations on these macrofungi.
Keywords: Internal transcribed spacer region – Iran – Macrofungi – Mazandaran province
Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S
Recieved: 20 December 2018, Accepted: 28 February 2019, Published: 19 March 2019
Capnodium berberidis, a sooty mould fungus, previously reported only from Pakistan in 1978, was recently observed on Berberis lycium in Jot Pass, district Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India. Berberis lycium is a well-known small to medium sized spiny, woody, deciduous or evergreen medicinal and ornamental plant distributed throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Disease symptoms appeared as thin, black to dark brown, easily removed superficial layer of hyphae on various parts of host plant including leaves, stem, twigs and fruits. The detailed studies on its morphology and taxonomy revealed it a sooty mould fungus Capnodium berberidis. As per literature consulted, this is the first report of Capnodium berberidis from India and probably second from world.
Keywords: Berberis lycium – black mildew – Dothideomycetes – Himachal Pradesh – new record – sooty moulds
6. Foliose lichens along the trails of Casaroro Falls and Pulangbato Falls in Valencia, Negros Oriental, Philippines
Authors: Paguirigan JAG, Bernal KD, Dayto CGA, Ramos MED, Vigo GDS, dela Cruz TEE
Recieved: 29 August 2018, Accepted: 29 November 2018, Published: 29 March 2019
Lichens are abundant and highly diverse in tropical areas such as the Philippines due to its climate and geographical features. However, several regions of the country remained underexplored or unexplored and many species remained undiscovered in the country’s many unique habitats. This study determines the occurrence of foliose lichens in Casaroro Falls and Pulangbato Falls in Valencia, Negros Oriental, Philippines. The lichen morphologies were characterized using available taxonomic keys. Among the 26 lichen samples collected from the two falls, 23 specimens were identified based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Of these, 8 species were specific to Casaroro Falls and 13 species to Pulangbato Falls, with only 2 species of lichens found on both waterfalls. Interestingly, 17 species are new records for the Philippines.
Keywords: foliose – lichen identification – Negros Oriental – new records – Philippines – tropics
7. Paoayensis aquatica sp. nov. (Ascomycetes) on submerged wood from the River Tapti, Maharashtra, India
Authors: Borse BD, Pawar NS
Recieved: 24 February 2019, Accepted: 11 April 2019, Published: 08 May 2019
A new fungus was collected on submerged wood from a freshwater stream in Maharashtra at Western Ghats is described here as P. aquatica. The new ascomycete fungus differs from the type and only species in the genus, P. lignicola, by size and characteristics of ascomata, asci and ascospores. This is the first record of the genus Paoayensis from India.
Keywords: biodiversity – freshwater – systematic – taxonomy
8. Boletellus nordestinus (Boletaceae, Boletales), a new species from Northeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil
Authors: Magnago AC, Neves MA, Silveira RMB
Recieved: 19 March 2019, Accepted: 10 May 2019, Published: 15 May 2019
Boletellus nordestinus is described as a new species from white sandy dunes in the Northeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The area is known as a potential ectotrophic forest, since some ectomycorrhizal fungi had been found in the same area. The new species is characterized by dry, velutinous and olivaceus to chocolate brown pileus, context and hymenophore non-cyanescent when exposed or pressured, short and longitudinally ridged basidiospores, fusiform to ventricose cystidia, and a trichodermal pileipellis with disarticulated, acute terminal elements. A full description, line drawings, color photographs and molecular phylogenetic data of the new species are provided.
Keywords: Agaricomycetes – boletoid fungi – Neotropical fungi – taxonomy
Authors: Ao T, Deb CR
Recieved: 09 February 2019, Accepted: 01 April 2019, Published: 17 May 2019
The need for conservation of fungal diversity has garnered more interest during recent times. Nagaland is a hilly state of north-eastern region in India with varied altitude and agro-climatic conditions. The state is home to a large number of wild fungi including popular edible varieties and has the potential role to improve the rural economy. The present study, concerns with a total number of 141 mushroom species belonging to 80 genera under 44 families of which 52 species are identified to be edible, 10 species as poisonous and the remaining 79 mushrooms are found to be inedible. The rich mushroom wealth of the state is yet untapped so it is high time to study and explore this rich bioresource. This will create avenues for the local people to earn their livelihoods, and also create awareness for conservation and management of this bioresource. The database of wild mushrooms created in this study will help future researchers to make further in-depth study of the potential mushrooms available. Mushrooms are a boon to mankind and should be judiciously exploited for societal benefits across the globe.
Keywords: Ascomycetes – basidiomycetes – biodiversity – edible – poisonous
Authors: Jagadish BR, Sridhar KR, Dattaraj HR
Recieved: 09 March 2019, Accepted: 14 May 2019, Published: 29 May 2019
Macrofungi are common and widespread in scrub jungles of southwest India during monsoon season. Assemblage of macrofungi in the vicinity of two tree species Anacardium occidentale (introduced) and Terminalia paniculata (native) were evaluated. Occurrence on different substrates (soil, leaf litter, wood, bark, seeds, live roots and insect) in and around trees was monitored at weekly intervals up to 12 weeks during southwest monsoon season based on the quadrat method. More number of macrofungi were associated with Terminalia compared to Anacardium (36 vs. 22 spp.) and 14 species were in common. The species richness ranged from 2-8, which was almost opposing between tree species on each week with a gradual decline. The sporocarp richness ranged from 3-61 in Anacardium, while it was from 8-132 in Terminalia with two peaks during week 4 and 7 followed by a steep decline. The species accumulation curve reached a plateau after four weeks in Anacardium, while it was exponential in Terminalia until 12 weeks. The Simpson and Shannon diversities were higher in Terminalia compared to Anacardium with low Pielou’s equitability. In Anacardium, mushrooms were found on six substrates with a highest on soil as well as wood (9 spp.), while on seven substrates in Terminalia with a highest in soil (18 spp.). Anacardium was in association with one, while Terminalia with three ectomycorrhizal species. The pattern of distribution and diversity of macrofungi have been compared with earlier studies with different habitats of scrub jungles.
Keywords: Anacardium occidentale – diversity – mushrooms – species richness – Terminalia paniculata
Authors: Assis NM, Freitas-Neto JF, Sousa JO, Barbosa FR, Baseia IG
Recieved: 14 December 2018, Accepted: 24 April 2019, Published: 31 May 2019
The genus Geastrum Pers. has cosmopolitan distribution and can be found in humid, arid or semi-arid climates. Geastrum hyalinum is a new species found in the Brazilian Southern Amazon in the Rio Ronuro Ecological Station. This new species can be recognized by its hyaline microscopic structures, such as peridium hyphae, capillitium and spores; indeed, this character is unusual for the genus Geastrum. Description, discussion and photographs of this new taxon are given.
Keywords: Biodiversity – Earthstar – Gasteromycetes – Neotropics – Taxonomy
Authors: Vinay Bharadwaj T
Recieved: 07 April 2019, Accepted: 24 May 2019, Published: 10 June 2019
Two manglicolous lichen species namely, Graphis ajarekarii Patw. and C. R. Kulk on the twigs of Avicennia officinalis from Nagayalanka lighthouse of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh and Ramalina leiodea (Nyl.) Nyl. on the twigs of Ceriops decandra from Bhitarkanika island of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa state are reported. Both the species are new records on the mangroves of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa states of India.
Keywords: estuaries – Graphis ajarekarii – manglicolous lichens – Ramalina leiodea
13. Growth characteristics and pathogenic consequences of predominant entomopathogenic Yukon soil fungi Mortierella alpina and Penicillium expansum, and effectiveness of Met52®, against larvae of the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus
Authors: Yoder JA, Krieger M, Oakley M, Trotter J, Schmelzer P, Niksic A, Rodell BM, Klever LA
Recieved: 16 April 2019, Accepted: 21 May 2019, Published: 10 June 2019
Water activity-temperature relationships are reported for Yukon soil-isolated strains of Mortierella alpina and Penicillium expansum that are natural enemies to larvae (infestation stage) of the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus. Both fungal strains are psychrotrophs, characterized by low thermal growth ranges, consistent with their occurrence in Yukon soil. In contrast to P. expansum, M. alpina is more temperature sensitive, has a higher requirement, and is more virulent to tick larvae. Researchers and Biological Control Officers should note that for tick population control these M. alpina and P. expansum strains grow and sporulate well under moderate temperature and humid conditions. Our experiments used Met52® Bioinsecticide as a positive control, and this is the first study that demonstrates the effectiveness of this commercial product against winter tick larvae.
Keywords: Alaska – biological control – Canada – elk tick – horse tick – moose tick – temperature – water activity
14. The biotechnological potential of using mono– and co–cultures of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem and Trichoderma viride Pers ex Fr. to enhance the protein content of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels by solid substrate fermentation
Authors: Yafetto L, Odamtten GT, Adu SK, Ekloh E
Recieved: 20 April 2019, Accepted: 27 May 2019, Published: 18 June 2019
The application of fungal biotechnology for nutrient value addition and improvement of agro-industrial wastes is critical in the development of protein-rich feed for livestock. This study evaluated conventional methods for protein enrichment of cassava peels by solid substrate fermentation using mono- and co-cultures of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. Sterile and non-sterile cassava peels inoculated with mono-cultures of A. niger or T. viride and co-cultures of A. niger and T. viride were spontaneously fermented for 21 days at 24°C. Fermented substrates were harvested at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days intervals, then oven-dried at 60°C, milled in a blender and further assayed for ash, carbohydrate, crude fibre, fat, and protein contents. Results showed that percentage increase in protein contents after 21 days incubation of sterile cassava peels were 71.02% (for mono-culture of A. niger) and 71.64% (for mono-culture of T. viride); co-culture of A. niger and T. viride yielded a 129.00% increase in protein. Enhanced percentage increase in protein content of the non-sterile cassava peels was 126.80% (for mono-culture of A. niger) and 168.34% (for mono-culture of T. viride) in contrast with 63.47% obtained for the co-culture of A. niger and T. viride in non-sterile cassava peels, which was attributable to possible antibiosis due to microbial competition. Ash content significantly (p≤0.05) increased for 21 days while carbohydrate, crude fibre and fat contents in both sterile and non-sterile cassava peels decreased over the same period. These findings underscore the fact that protein content of cassava peels can be significantly (p ≤0.05) enriched through fungal biotechnology to produce value-added feed supplement for livestock. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: agro-industrial wastes – environmental mycoremediation – fungal biotechnology – nutrient-enriched feed
15. Entomopathogenic fungi isolated from Yukon soil against unfed larvae of the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus
Authors: Dobrotka CJ, Krieger M, Oakley M, Trotter, J, Rodell BM, Stein KL, Klever LA, Fisher KA, Yoder JA
Recieved: 11 April 2019, Accepted: 09 July 2019, Published: 22 July 2019
Fungal composition of Yukon soil samples consisted of 29 soil saprobes common to acidified forest, subarctic habitats. All of the fungi identified are psychrotrophs, capable of growth at both 4ºC and 20ºC. Of these, a total of 17 fungi were found to be entomopathogenic by winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) larval bioassays: Aspergillus flavus, Beauveria, namely B. bassiana, Mucor, Paecilomyces yielded > ~ 70% larval mortality and the remainder, mostly Mortierella and Penicillium, averaged ~ 40% larval mortality. Sites where elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) are observed had an overall greater quantity, and diversity of entomopathogenic soil fungi than sites where elk are not observed. Greater diversity of fungi at elk-inhabited sites is likely a product of warmer soil microclimate (hillsides where elk are seen, lose snow earlier than other areas), animal presence, and increased nutrient enrichment. We conclude that Yukon soils contain fungi that naturally regulate populations of D. albipictus. All fungi are archived at the Wittenberg University Fungus Collection, Springfield, OH, USA.
Keywords: Biological control – mycoflora – moose tick – elk tick – horse tick – Canada – Alaska
Authors: Xavier MD, Silva-Filho AGS, Baseia IG, Wartchow F
Recieved: 19 February 2019, Accepted: 06 July 2019, Published: 22 July 2019
Panaeolus acuminatus is described and illustrated based on fresh specimens collected from Northeast Brazil. This is the second known report of this species for the country, since it was already reported in 1930 by Rick. The species is characterized by the acuminate, pileus with hygrophanous surface, basidiospores measuring 11.5–16 × 5.5–11 µm and slender, non-capitate cheilocystidia. A full description accompanies photographs, line drawings and taxonomic discussion.
Keywords: Agaricomycotina – Basidiomycota – biodiversity – dark-spored – Panaeoloideae – Rick
17. New records of Hypoxylon hypomiltum and Hypomontagnella monticulosa from Pilikuththuwa lowland wet zone forest, Sri Lanka
Authors: Palapathwala PLES, Daranagama DA, Abeywickrama K, Kannangara BTSDP
Recieved: 05 June 2019, Accepted: 26 June 2019, Published: 05 August 2019
Species of Hypoxylon exhibit their highest diversity in the tropics. During an assessment of diversity of hypoxylaceous fungi in the lowland wet zone forest area in Sri Lanka, two new records were reported. Morphological identification of the collected samples was carried out using both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Genomic DNA was extracted using modified CTAB method and amplification of both ITS and β-tubulin genes were performed using ITS1 and ITS4 and T1 and T22 primers respectively. In the present study, recognition of species in Hypoxylon was carried out using a combined phylogenic analysis of ITS and β-tubulin molecular markers. Phylogenetic tree resulted from combined analysis comprised nine clades. According to the results, two new country records of Hypomontagnella monticulosa and Hypoxylon hypomiltum were recognized from Pilikuththuwa lowland wet zone forest.
Keywords: Hypoxylaceae – Morphology – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
Authors: Rosado-Rodríguez G, Sánchez-Martínez E, Maldonado-Ramírez SL, Otero E
Recieved: 21 July 2019, Accepted: 16 August 2019, Published: 26 September 2019
Sponges are known for their symbiotic associations with bacteria and to a lesser extent with fungi. It has been argued that the association between fungi and sponges is not truly symbiotic, and fungal presence is incidental. Nevertheless, a vertically transmitted endosymbiotic yeast has been observed by transmission electron microscopy in sponges of the genus Chondrilla. Our work was focused on documenting the presence of yeasts associated with marine sponges from Puerto Rico. Sponge samples were taken from healthy mature colonies of Ircinia strobilina, Tedania ignis, and Chondrilla caribensis. A total of 36 yeast morphotypes were isolated and analysed by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was isolated from all the samples, comprising the first report of this yeast as a common inhabitant in marine sponges. Other yeasts isolated include the halophilic black yeast, Hortaea werneckii, and an unidentified species belongs to the Sporidiobolales (Basidiomycota). The high isolation frequency of S. cerevisiae from our sponge samples supports the possibility that Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an active member of the sponges’ microbial community.
Keywords: fungi – Hortaea – marine sponges – Porifera – Rhodotorula – Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Trierveiler-Pereira L, Meijer AAR, Silveira RMB
Recieved: 19 April 2019, Accepted: 15 August 2019, Published: 26 September 2019
An illustrated and annotated checklist with key to 24 species of phalloids known to occur in Southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) are presented. The species belong to the orders Clathraceae, Claustulaceae, Lysuraceae, Phallaceae and Protophallaceae. Doubtful species are also discussed. Abrachium floriforme and Staheliomyces cinctus are the first reports from Southern Brazil and Laternea pusilla is new to the State of Santa Catarina.
Keywords: Brazilian mycota – fungal taxonomy – phalloid fungi – Phallomycetidae – stinkhorns
20. Notes on the genus Arrhenia (I): Arrhenia pontevedrana, sp. nov. and A. subglobisemen (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), from the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula
Authors: Blanco-Dios JB
Recieved: 22 May 2019, Accepted: 21 August 2019, Published: 27 September 2019
Arrhenia pontevedrana is described as a new species to science from Galicia (NW of Iberian Peninsula) based on morphological characteristics. A detailed description of basidiomata and microstructures of this species and a comparison with its morphologically closely related taxa are given. Arrhenia subglobisemen is recorded for the first time from the Iberian Peninsula. The new combination Arrhenia kuhnerii is also proposed.
Keywords: Biodiversity – Spain – Taxonomy – Tricholomataceae
21. Morphological and molecular characterization of culturable leaf endophytic fungi from Malabar Spinach: The first report
Authors: Moutusi S, Buela Parivallal P, Prasannakumar MK, Kiranmayee P
Recieved: 12 July 2019, Accepted: 01 September 2019, Published: 10 October 2019
To isolate and identify the cultivable leaf endophytic fungi of Basella alba L. and B. rubra L., healthy and fresh leaves were chosen and collected from Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research college botanical garden. Authenticated materials were made into small bits, surface sterilized by applying the standard protocol and cultured on a potato dextrose agar plate supplemented with appropriate antibiotics, incubated for 7 to10 days at 28˚C. Seed borne fungal endophytes were also identified by keeping scarified seeds on sterilized agarose. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the fungi of both the plants. A total of 26 and 19 endophytic cultivable fungi were isolated from B. alba and B. rubra respectively. Majority of the endophytes belongs to the genus Alternaria and several genera in class Dothideomycetes. Our preliminary observation indicated that the vertically transmitted endophytic fungi are the dominant endophytes of the selected plants. We conclude that Alternaria is predominant in both the plants. The mechanism of transition of the microbe from being non-pathogenic in its host to being pathogenic in other plants needs to be studied and elucidated.
Keywords: Basella alba – Basella rubra – CTAB – ITS – phylogenetic tree
Authors: Lubrano Lavadera A, Mazzella V, D’Antonio C
Recieved: 15 January 2019, Accepted: 01 October 2019, Published: 07 November 2019
Islands are special environments for studying fungi. On the Vivara island, an integral natural reserve, several taxonomic studies have been performed in the last decades but the taxonomic composition of the mycoflora is still not clear. For this reason, here we present an updated checklist of the mycoflora present on the island, part of a more complex work that allowed the mapping of all the living species present in this precious natural park, over the past decade.
Keywords: Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – Fungi – Natural reserve – Taxonomy
23. Paracremonium moubasheri, a new species from an alkaline sediment of Lake Hamra in Wadi-El-Natron, Egypt with a key to the accepted species
Authors: Al-Bedak OA, Ismail MA, Mohamed RA
Recieved: 31 July 2019, Accepted: 16 October 2019, Published: 07 November 2019
During surveys of extremophilic fungi in hypersaline, alkaline lakes of Wadi-El-Natron, Egypt, an interesting fungus was recovered from a mud sample collected from Lake Hamra in Wadi-El-Natron, Egypt. Maximum likelihood analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene along with morphological comparisons of related taxa revealed a novel taxon, Paracremonium moubasheri which is described and illustrated in the current study. Paracremonium moubasheri can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by its large conidia, in addition to the presence of chlamydospores.
Keywords: Acremonium-like – Hypersaline – Hypocreales – new taxon – Phylogeny
24. Effect of extraction method on Mycochemicals and Proximate composition of Pyrrhoderma noxium (Corner) L.W. Zhou & Y.C. Dai, (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota)
Authors: Nagadesi PK, Babu ND, Suneetha NN, Prasad KSM, Devi PP
Recieved: 09 October 2018, Accepted: 07 November 2019, Published: 13 November 2019
Several medicines obtained from Pyrrhoderma mushrooms are widely used against several diseases throughout the world. So, in preparation of crude drugs/ folk medicines of mushroom i.e. Pyrrhoderma noxium collected from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India was studied and identified phenotypically. The present work aims to test the presence of Mycochemicals and proximate composition for standardization of powder of P. noxium. The solvents used for extraction and method of extraction played a vital role on mycochemical and proximate composition of P. noxium sporophore. The maceration water bath assisted extraction method is the best extraction method compared to maceration and Reflux extraction methods for all parameters studied in this work. The present study shows the extraction method and type of solvent influencing the presence of mycochemical composition like alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, diterpenoids, and anthocyanin in hymenochaetales fungi. The proximate composition evaluation is very much useful for standardisation of P. noxium in powder form. That will help to identify the genuine species and check for adulteration of powder available commercially.
Authors: Verma RK, Prasher IB, Sushma, Gautam AK
Recieved: 29 June 2019, Accepted: 07 October 2019, Published: 25 November 2019
Hyphomycetes are abundant and highly diverse in tropical areas such as India due to its climate and geographical landscape. However, several regions of the country remained unexplored or underexplored and many species remained undiscovered in the country. During mycological forays from the forests of Himachal Pradesh, two hyphomycetous fungi were collected. After detailed analysis of mycological characters like oval to oblong–ellipsoidal, muriform conidia with transverse, longitudinal, and oblique septa rounded or irregular at the ends and often with a protruding hilum, singly on short, unbranched conidiophores or sessile, in sporodochial conidiomata, it was found that these taxa belongs to the genus Berkleasmium. The further evaluation of morphological and microscopic characters revealed the identity of these fungi as B. pandani and B. typhae. Review of literature reveals that both are new records for India. Synoptic table of all the accepted species (both asexual morph and sexual morph) along with checklist of Berkleasmium from India is also provided.
Keywords: Anamorphic fungi – biodiversity – taxonomy
26. Single inoculation with an AM Fungus enhanced growth of Phyllanthus emblica compared to its co-inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms
Authors: Nikhil N, Ashwin R, Harinikumar KM, Bagyaraj DJ
Recieved: 05 September 2019, Accepted: 29 October 2019, Published: 26 November 2019
Sustainable agroforestry recommends use of more biologicals including microorganisms for the cultivation of plants. Emblica officinalis is an important forest tree species commonly used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for curing several human ailments. A glass house study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Claroideoglomus etunicatum and 5 different plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR) singly and in combination on the growth of Phyllanthus emblica (amla) seedlings. The result brought out that single inoculation with AMF C. etunicatum is the best compared to all other treatments in improving the growth of amla seedlings. The performance of this microbial inoculation was later evaluated through large scale forest nursery trials at 3 locations with 500 inoculated and 500 uninoculated amla seedlings at each location. The results of the large scale forest nursery trials validated the results of the glass house study. The increase in biovolume index (BI) of inoculated plants, which indicates the quality of seedlings, was 49% (average of 3 locations) compared to uninoculated plants. The inoculated seedlings under large scale nursery trials were planted in wastelands at 2 locations and their establishment was monitored. The BI of inoculated seedlings was 66% more (average of 2 locations) compared to uninoculated seedlings.
Keywords: Biovolume index – C. etunicatum – PGPR
27. Morphological and molecular identification of Panus conchatus (Polyporaceae, Polyporales) from Yunnan Province, China
Authors: Luangharn T, Karunarathna SC, Mortimer PE, Hyde KD, Xu J
Recieved: 18 August 2019, Accepted: 14 December 2019, Published: 20 December 2019
Panus conchatus is a species of lentinoid fungi in the family Polyporaceae. This species is characterized by its concave, smooth, deeply decurrent gills, with distinctive purple grey to greyish magenta basidiocarps. This fungus is widely distributed in both tropical and temperate regions. Here, we report a specimen of P. conchatus collected from a temperate region in Yunnan Province, China. The specimen is described and illustrated based on macro- and micro-morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses were done based on the sequence data of ITS and LSU, and the placement of the taxon was confirmed. This is the first time P. conchatus has been reported with molecular phylogenetic data from China. Full description, illustrations, color photographs, and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of P. conchatus are provided.
Keywords: agaricoid form – hymenophoral trama – lentinoid mushroom – polyporales
Authors: Lucban MC, Paguirigan JAG
Recieved: 21 June 2019, Accepted: 13 December 2019, Published: 20 December 2019
Various species of mangrove trees thrive in the mangrove forests of Calabarzon, Philippines including species of Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora apiculata, which house various lichen species but very little available information on the diversity of these epiphytes is known. A survey of 90 decaying mangrove woods from 3 mangrove sites in Calabarzon including Laiya Batangas, Tanza Cavite and Pagbilao Quezon recorded a total of 40 lichen species classified under 25 genera and 14 families. Rhizophora apiculata (bakawang lalaki) was found the most preferred lichen establishment host as it housed 23 lichen species followed by Rhizophora mucronata (bakawang babae) with 17 lichen species and Avicenia marina with 7 lichen species. Lichens that belong to family Arthoniaceae, Caliciaceae, Parmeliaceae, Collemataceae, and Graphidaceae were the highest recorded. Most of these manglicolous lichens were classified as crustose (60%) and foliose (40%) lichens. Out of these manglicolous lichens identified, 29 species were found to be new records of lichens in the Philippines.
Keywords: corticolous – epiphytes – estuarine – mangrove – new record
Authors: D’Souza MA, Rana S, Singh SK
Recieved: 27 September 2019, Accepted: 25 November 2019, Published: 27 December 2019
Periconia igniaria, isolated as an endophytic fungus from roots of Cheilocostus speciosus from Calangute, Bardez, Goa, India was described in this manuscript. The identity of the endophytic isolate was based on asexual-morphs, cultural characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this taxon as root endophyte of Cheilocostus speciosus from Western Ghats forests, Goa, India.
Keywords: Cheilocostus speciosus – Goa – Taxonomy – Western Ghats
30. Comparative study of protein pattern changes and mineral composition in cultivated and newly domesticated wild Flammulina velutipes
Authors: Hashemian SM, Pourianfar HR, Rezaeian S-H
Recieved: 25 March 2019, Accepted: 28 November 2019, Published: 30 December 2019
A wild strain of Flammulina velutipes indigenous to Iran has been recently adapted for artificial cultivation, requiring nutritional information in order to improve its utilization as a medicinal-culinary mushroom. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate protein profile of this domesticated wild F. velutipes strain over six different developmental stages, in comparison with a commercially cultivated strain of F. velutipes. Various macro- and microelements were also investigated in the mature sporomes cultivated in a lignocellulosic substrate composed of 40% wheat straw +40% sawdust +18% wheat bran +1% lime +1% gypsum. The lowest and highest amounts of protein were observed in primordia (33% of dry matter) and sporomes picked at the third or fifth day of harvesting (57% of dry matter), respectively (p ≤ 0.05), followed by an obvious decrease in protein content at the late stages of harvesting (p ≤ 0.05). Further SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that the protein molecular mass increased from less than 30 kDa in primordia to 235 kDa in mature sporomes. However, no significant difference in protein profiling was noticed between the wild and the reference strains of any given stage (p ≥ 0.05). While nutritional elements such as K, P and Mg were found at 886.9, 745.2, and 142.7 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively, no heavy metals was found at levels higher than the provisional maximum tolerable intake in the sporomes. This study may be considered an initial step towards recognition of the wild F. velutipes as a non-toxic functional food, warranting further proteomics studies.
Keywords: Developmental stages – Nutritional elements – PAGE – Protein content – SDS – Wild mushrooms
31. Carboxylesterase activity of filamentous soil fungi from a potato plantation in Mankayan, Benguet
Authors: Poncian M, Beray BJW, Dadulla HCP, Hipol RM
Recieved: 06 November 2019, Accepted: 17 December 2019, Published: 31 December 2019
In this study, filamentous fungi were isolated from a soil sample from a farm in Mankayan, Benguet. The isolates were tested for the presence of carboxylesterase enzyme as it would indicate the ability to breakdown pyrethroid pesticides such as Cypermethrin. A total of fourteen fungal isolates were characterized morphologically and were identified using the D1/D2 regions of 28S rDNA. All were identified to be members of the Ascomycetes. Seven of the isolates belong to the genus Fusarium, and two were identified to be Aspergillus heteromorphus and Penicillium sp. All fourteen isolates exhibited carboxylesterase activity. Isolates BDP3 and BDP10 exhibited the greatest carboxylesterase activity. These two isolates, both unidentified Ascomycetes, are promising species for mycoremediation specifically targeting pyrethroid pesticides.
Keywords: Aspergillus heteromorphus – carboxylesterase – cypermethrin – pyrethroids