Volume 6 - 2021
5. New host and geographic records of five pleosporalean hyphomycetes associated with Musa spp. (Banana)
Samarakoon BC et al. (2021)
3. First record of Eutypella vitis causing branch dieback on new host trees in Canada
Ilyukhin E et al. (2021)
Volume 5 - 2020
33. A review on the genus Entoloma (Basidiomycota, Entolomataceae) in Yunnan Province, China
Ediriweera AN et al. (2020)
32. Three new records of Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae) for the Turkish Mycota from Trabzon, Turkey
Sesli E, Örtücü S (2020)
31. “Ganoderma lucidum sensu lato” – a sacred mushroom for immortality
Ayesha P et al. (2020)
Volume 5 - 2020 -
Authors: Wartchow F
Recieved: 10 September 2019, Accepted: 13 November 2019, Published: 19 February 2020
Inocybe cavalcantiae is described based on morphological data from Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. It is characterized by radially fibrillose/rimose pileus, narrow marginate bulb, nodulose basidiospores, lageniform to clavate metuloids pleurocystidia and versiform metuloids caulocystidia. The species is described, illustrated and compared with morphologically similar species.
Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Basidiomycota – Neotropic – taxonomy
Authors: Mohd Nazri NIA, Mohd Zaini NA, Aris A, Hasan ZAE, Abd Murad NB, Yusof MT, Mohd Zainudin NAI
Recieved: 13 November 2019, Accepted: 22 January 2020, Published: 02 March 2020
Microfungi are commonly inhabited soil with various roles. The present study was conducted in order to isolate and identify microfungi from soil samples in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. In this study, the soil microfungi were isolated using serial dilution technique and spread plate method. A total of 25 isolates were identified into ten genera based on internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence analysis, namely Aspergillus, Clonostachys, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Gliocladiopsis, Metarhizium, Myrmecridium, Penicillium, Scedosporium and Trichoderma consisting 18 fungi species. Aspergillus and Penicillium species were claimed as predominant microfungi inhabiting the soil. Findings from this study can be used as a checklist for future studies related to fungi distribution in tropical lands. For improving further study, factors including the physicochemical properties of soil and anthropogenic activities in the sampling area should be included.
Keywords: Aspergillus – diversity – fungi – Penicillium – Trichoderma
Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S, Prasher IB, Sushma, Verma RK
Recieved: 06 December 2019, Accepted: 13 March 2020, Published: 19 March 2020
A checklist of cercosporoid fungi reported from Himachal Pradesh, India, has been prepared on the basis of available publications. A total of 103 species belonging to 15 genera of cercosporoid fungi have been reported from Himachal Pradesh on 118 plant species belonging to 46 families. The species richness of cercosporoid fungi in the region was as follows; Cercospora (50), Pseudocercospora (23), Ramularia and Passalora (7 each), Stigmina & Mycosphaerella (3 each), Sirosporium (2), Cercosporella, Distomycovellosiella and Mycovellosiella, Neocercosporidium, Neopseudocercosporella, Nothopassalora, Rosisphaerella & Teratosphaeria (1 each). The highest numbers of cercosporoid fungi were recorded on plant hosts of the family Solanaceae (12 species) followed by Fabaceae (10 species), Asteraceae and Rosaceae (8 species each), Amaranthaceae (5 species), Malvaceae and Smilaceae (4 species each), Acanthaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae and Ranunculaceae (3 species each), while the rest of families were found associated with 1–2 cercosporoid speices.
Keywords: fungi – hyphomycetes – India – list – Mycosphaerellaceae – North Western Himalaya
Authors: Raut JK, Basukala O, Shrestha R, Poudel RC
Recieved: 24 February 2020, Accepted: 10 April 2020, Published: 24 April 2020
A new species of Scleroderma is described from temperate Oak forest of Phulchoki hill, at the highest peak (2,762 m) ringing the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Smooth to velvety, pseudostipitate basidiome, smaller and sub-reticulate basidiospores in comparison to its close relatives, are key diagnostic features of this newly discovered mushroom. The novelty of the taxon was also confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis using the data sets of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear rDNA sequences along with the analysis of scanning electron micrographs of its basidiospores. A comprehensive description, illustrations, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided in this study. Additional surveys are needed to verify the species diversity and clarify their geographic distribution.
Keywords: Ectomycorrhiza – Lalitpur – Oak forest – Phylogeny – Pseudostipe
5. Aspergillus gaarensis, a new addition to section Circumdati from soil of Lake El-Gaar in Wadi-El-Natron, Egypt
Authors: Al-Bedak OA, Moubasher AH
Recieved: 21 January 2020, Accepted: 30 April 2020, Published: 13 May 2020
In the present study, a novel fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus section Circumdati was isolated from a cultivated soil sample close to El-Gaar lake in Wadi-El-Natron region, Egypt. Sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of its DNA showed that the isolate differs from all known Aspergillus species in section Circumdati. The novel Aspergillus species is described here as Aspergillus gaarensis. Phenotypic characteristics and molecular data were applied to determine its novel taxonomic status. Both macro and micro characteristics of the novel species are presented in the current study.
Keywords: ITS – new taxon – phylogeny – saline
6. Dikaryotization seems essential for hypha formation and infection of coccid in the life-cycle of Auriculoscypha anacardiicola
Authors: Thomas A, Manimohan P
Recieved: 15 November 2019, Accepted: 18 April 2020, Published: 15 May 2020
Auriculoscypha, a monotypic basidiomycetous genus with A. anacardiicola as the only known species, is endemic to southwest India where it is seen in triple symbioses with a coccid and anacardiaceous trees involving interactions between three trophic levels. The present study was an attempt to verify the hypothesis that dikaryotization is a prerequisite for hypha formation and coccid-infection in the life-cycle of A. anacardiicola. Light-microscopic observations using Giemsa staining and fluorescent microscopic observations of DAPI-stained material were made to determine the number of nuclei in cells/hyphal compartments at various stages in the life-cycle of the fungus. Our studies revealed that while the basidiospores were consistently unicellular and uninucleate at the time of discharge, the hyphae of A. anacardiicola were consistently dikaryotic. Coupled with the observed inability of a single basidiospore to establish a mycelium, our study indicates that dikaryotization is essential for hypha formation and infection of the coccid in the life-cycle of A. anacardiicola.
Keywords: Fungus-insect-symbiosis – Pucciniomycotina – Septobasidiaceae – scale-insect – yeast-stage
Authors: Dattaraj HR, Sridhar KR, Jagadish BR, Pavithra M
Recieved: 20 March 2020, Accepted: 08 May 2020, Published: 19 May 2020
The scrub jungles of the southwestern India support different mushrooms of economic significance. The coral mushrooms belong to the genus Ramaria distributed worldwide and many species are edible, medicinal and ectomycorrhizal. Ramaria versatilis occurring in scrub jungles were analyzed for biochemical profile and antioxidant potential. Qualitative tests of uncooked samples showed presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and coumarins, whereas the cooked samples possess saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and coumarins. Quantitative assessment revealed significantly higher quantities of total phenolics as well as vitamin C in uncooked than cooked samples. The total antioxidant activity, ferrous ion-chelation capacity and DPPH radical-scavenging activity were also significantly high in uncooked samples. Occurrence, substrates, mycorrhizal association and edibility of different Ramaria occurring in the Western Ghats region have been reviewed with comparison of nutritional and antioxidant potential of R. versatilis with other Ramaria spp.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities – bioactive compounds – ectomycorrhizae – scrub jungles
8. Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Sm. and their antifungal activity against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani
Authors: Sarma P, Dkhar MS, Kayang H, Kumar M, Dubey NK, Raghuwanshi R
Recieved: 16 December 2019, Accepted: 27 April 2020, Published: 19 May 2020
Twenty eight strains of endophytic fungi including sterile mycelia were isolated from the leaf, rhizome and roots of Hedychium spicatum Ham ex. Sm. Majority of the endophytic fungi isolated belonged to the phylum Ascomycota which accounted of about 84%. The endophytic assemblage was dominated by the class Sordariomycetes. Endophytic fungal genera such as Fusarium and Penicillium were found to be common to all the plant parts. Diversity of endophytic fungi was found to be highest in the roots (H’= 2.43). Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium sp., Penicillium expansum, P. simplicissimum, Phoma medicaginis, Trichoderma sp. and T. gamsii showed above 60% inhibition against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani.
Keywords: Colonization frequency– diversity index – percentage inhibition
9. Evaluation of agro-based waste substrates for micropropagule formation in biocontrol fungi, Trichoderma asperellum and T. harzianum
Authors: Hasan ZAE, Mohd Zainudin NAI, Aris A, Ibrahim MH, Yusof MT
Recieved: 27 March 2020, Accepted: 17 May 2020, Published: 04 June 2020
Trichoderma species have shown efficiency on biocontrol of phytopathogens. For commercial application, it must be propagated in mass scale using a cost-effective method. As an alternative way to effectively deliver biocontrol fungi inoculum to the field; seven agro-based wastes including rice bran, biochar, empty fruit bunches, coconut fibre, compost, topsoil and mixed soil were used in this study for evaluating mass multiplication of Trichoderma species. Based on the evaluation of colony-forming units (cfu) among the agro-based waste media used, coconut fibre is the most suitable in promoting the sporulation of Trichoderma asperellum and T. harzianum. Trichoderma asperellum C1667 showed the higher micropropagule count through incubation period compared to T. harzianum C1675. After 120 days on the agro-based waste media, T. asperellum C1667 and T. harzianum C1675 produced the highest (7.717×105 cfu/g and 6.836±13.79×105 cfu/g) coconut fibres, respectively. Meanwhile, the mixed soil appeared with the lowest cfu. Coconut fibres were shown as a great biocomposting medium for both Trichoderma species. Findings of the present study are valuable for disease management using agro-based wastes as a cost-effective medium for biocontrol agents like Trichoderma species.
Keywords: Biocontrol agent – mass multiplication – shelf life
10. Isolating sorbicilin-producing fungi from Darband cave and evaluating the sorbicilin biomedical applications
Authors: Zareshahi F, Abolmaali SH, Darvish Alipour Astaneh SH, Asghari A
Recieved: 01 January 2020, Accepted: 17 April 2020, Published: 04 June 2020
To evaluate the potential of fungi from Darband cave, Semnan, Iran, for valuable antibacterial and anticancer agents, molecular screening was done against polyketides (PKS); the source for numerous diverse secondary metabolites. Fungi were isolated from soil and sludge. The antibacterial activity of the isolates was studied against indicator bacteria by well diffusion agar method, and analyzed by PCR for PKS genes. The positive strains were compared for toxicity against indicators and A549 cells. Production of antibacterial agents was investigated in 26 days followed by partial purification of the agents. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses were done to reveal the nature of the toxin(s). The isolates exhibited the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus subtilis. Three isolates selected for further studies based on the yellow culture broth, the presence of PKS, and antibacterial activity. The strains were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum using 18s rDNA analyzing. The yellow culture, 87% identity of the PKS 12/ PKS 13, the results of HPLC, and the toxic effects against certain bacteria and A549 cells confirmed the production of the sorbicillinoid in P. chrysogenum strains; DDFCC170 and DDFCC186. The partially-purified antibacterial-anticancer agents named as AnBa170 and AnBa186 exhibited bactericide effect on S. aureus and B. cereus. These compounds killed A549 cells with an IC50 value of 0.25 µM and 0.22 µM respectively. AnBa170 and AnBa186 are attractive for pharmaceutical industries. Based on the literature, the cytotoxicity of sorbicillinoids against tumor cells and bacteria is related to their oxidation capacity.
Keywords: Antibacterial – Penicillium chrysogenum – PKS – Sorbicillin
11. Mycoendophytic diversity and their antimicrobial potential from two epiphytic orchids of the Western Ghats forests of India
Authors: Nuthan BR, Rakshith D, Marulasiddaswamy KM, Ramesha KP, Chandra Mohana N, Sampath Kumara KK, Satish S
Recieved: 06 November 2019, Accepted: 02 June 2020, Published: 08 June 2020
The epiphytic plants belong to a group that harmlessly grows on other plants by utilizing the nutrition from the host plants with their unique adaptation features along with symbiotic associations with fungi or bacteria. The various biological activities exhibited by the mycoendophytes inhabiting medicinally-important epiphytic orchids serve as the primary source of novel drug leads, industrially-essential enzymes, and plant growth-promoting metabolites. In the present study, a total of 956 culturable mycoendophytes out of 1600 segments belonging to 17 genera were isolated from different tissue parts of Trias stocksii and Dendrobium herbaceum. The Xylariaceae taxa were the predominant mycoendophytes present in both plants, followed by Pestalotiopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., and Fusarium sp. An estimation of the Shannon–Wiener and Simpson diversity indices showed that the bulbs of T. stocksii have the highest species diversity index and the stems of D. herbaceum the lowest. The highest species richness was observed in the leaves of T. stocksii and the lowest in the leaves of D. herbaceum. Overall, T. stocksii harbored more mycoendophytes along with the highest diversity indices compared to D. herbaceum. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that Xylaria sp. has a higher potential of producing anti-infectives and opens a new arena for industrial exploration.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity – Dendrobium herbaceum – Diversity indices – Mycoendophytes – Trias stocksii – Xylaria sp.
Authors: Gorjón SP
Recieved: 03 April 2020, Accepted: 15 May 2020, Published: 09 June 2020
A review of the worldwide corticioid homobasidiomycetes genera is presented. A total of 620 genera are considered with comments on their taxonomy and nomenclature. Of them, about 420 are accepted and keyed out, described in detail with remarks on their taxonomy and systematics.
Keywords: Corticiaceae – Crust fungi – Diversity – Homobasidiomycetes
13. Diversity and endophytic fungal composition in Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. var queen cultivar isolated from three different growing conditions
Authors: Bhattacharya S, Debnath S, Saha AK
Recieved: 18 April 2020, Accepted: 04 June 2020, Published: 16 June 2020
Present study deals with the isolation of endophytic fungi from leaf and root explants of Ananus comosus var queen from three growing conditions i.e. wild, cultivated as monoculture and cultivated as mixed cropping system with rubber plants. A total of twenty-nine endophytic fungal strains along with two nonsporulating forms were isolated from the host plant from three experimental plots. The maximum numbers of fungal strains were found belong to family Aspergillaceae and order Eurotiales. The highest rates of colonization and isolation (p<0.05) of endophytic fungi have been reported in wild foliar explants (95.53±0.53) and monoculture (1.02±0.01), respectively. The highest relative frequency was observed among isolated fungal strains in the case of Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolated from the leaf and root of wild (26.22%) and monoculture (29.62%) explants. In L. theobromae and Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the leaf and roots of wild (21.66%) and monoculture (14.66%) explants showed the highest colonization frequency. Current findings showed that the distribution of fungal endophytes and their relative frequency in host plants vary in three different growing conditions.
Keywords: Colonization frequency – Fungal endophytes – Mixed cropping – Monoculture – Pineapple
Authors: Ramirez CSP, Notarte KIR, dela Cruz TEE
Recieved: 31 May 2020, Accepted: 16 June 2020, Published: 18 June 2020
Fungi associated with mangroves are untapped sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. In this study, 628 mangrove leaf endophytic fungi (MLEF) were recorded from 19 mangrove hosts collected from the provinces of Zambales, Batangas, Cavite, and Quezon in Luzon Island, Philippines. The MLEF morphospecies were identified as belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phialophora, and Trichoderma. Screening revealed that the MLEF crude culture extracts were promisingly potent against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus (ZOI > 19 mm) with no or partial activity against the gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings showed that mangrove leaf endophytic fungi are potential sources of bioactive compounds.
Keywords: bioactivities – fungal endophytes – mangrove forests – secondary metabolites
15. Chemical compositions, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of the endophytic fungus Fusarium napiforme isolated from Psidium guajava
Authors: Chutulo EC, Chalannavar RK, Pramod Kumar P
Recieved: 27 January 2020, Accepted: 08 June 2020, Published: 18 June 2020
The bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Fusarium napiforme was evaluated for the cytotoxic effect and antioxidant compounds. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extract was determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdate, and reducing power assay methods. The cytotoxicity effect of the extract was evaluated against lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells and mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The major composition of the crude extract was identified by the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Estimation of the endophyte crude extract revealed a high amount of the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC). The extract showed high cytotoxic activity against the A549 cell lines with the mean cytotoxicity of 69.74 ± 0.49%. The extract did not show any cytotoxic effect against the NIH3T3 cell lines. The extract exhibited high antioxidant activity as a function of the concentrations; DPPH (75.4607%±0.47688), reducing power of 0.882±0.0120, and 255.434±21.404 AAE/g extract by phosphomolybdenum assay (PMA). There is a strongly significant correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity at p < 0.05. The correlation between reducing power and DPPH is significant at p < 0.01. The major types of bioactive compounds identified by the GC-MS have shown the presence of nine major compounds. This result strongly exhibits that the endophyte F. napiforme can be a potential source for the formulation of natural anticancer drugs and protecting the body from oxidative damages.
Keywords: flavonoids – GC-MS analysis – lung adenocarcinoma cells – mouse embryo fibroblast cells – MTT assay – phenolics
Authors: Thapboualy P, Souvannasane T, Phengsintham P, Karunarathna SC
Recieved: 23 January 2020, Accepted: 18 June 2020, Published: 19 June 2020
Comprehensive examination of cercosporoid leaf-spotting hyphomycetes was carried out in the southern areas of Laos. During this study, a species of Stenella was recorded for the first time from Laos, and according to current taxonomic concepts, this species is transferred to the genus Zasmidium.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi – cercosporoid hyphomycetes – new record – South East Asia – Stenella persicae – taxonomy
Authors: Huanraluek N, Jayawardena RS, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Chethana KWT, Hyde KD
Recieved: 07 March 2020, Accepted: 12 June 2020, Published: 22 June 2020
This study presents the first report of Bionectria pseudochroleuca (Bionectriaceae) on Prunus sp. (Rosaceae) from northern Thailand, based on both morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribe spacer (ITS) and Beta-tubulin (TUB2).
Keywords: Bionectriaceae – Clonostachys – Hypocreales – Nectria – Prunus spp. – Sakura
18. The use of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride for biogas production
Authors: Mahmoud YA-G, Awadalla OA, Estafanous AN, Etawy WA
Recieved: 20 December 2019, Accepted: 01 June 2020, Published: 22 June 2020
The expanding cost of ordinary fuel in urban zones requires the investigation of other vitality sources. The exploitation of agricultural wastes for biogas production could protect our environment and can also solve emerging energy crises problems. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trichoderma virdie and Trichoderma harzianum were used to ferment rice straw and cattle dung for production of compost and biogas. Biogas yield was determined using displacement technique, using acidified water (1 N H2SO4) to prevent solubilization of carbon dioxide contained in the biogas. Current results showed that the highest rate of biogas and methane were recorded with treated rice straw mixed with cattle dung where the amount of production from the total gas was 51.84 of biogas and 37.86 of methane per Liter (L)/Kilogram (Kg) of fermented material. Also, the results showed that the consumed biogas and methane related to volatile solids gave the highest amount with untreated rice straw (86.32 and 56.72 L/Kg respectively) followed by treated rice straw and untreated and treated mixtures of rice straw and cattle dung respectively. The results also showed that the highest bacterial count was obtained from fungi treated rice straw mixed with cattle dung (125×103 cells/g) followed by treated rice straw (32×103 cells/g). This study confirms that P. chrysosporium, T. virdie and T. harzianum significantly speed up the process of aerobic and anaerobic fermentation of rice straw in respect to biogas and methane production.
Keywords: Aerobic fermentation – Anaerobic fermentation – Methane – Rice straw
Authors: Castillo RF, Gallegos G, Flores OA, Aguilar GC, Rodriguez HR, Hernandez CFD
Recieved: 19 March 2020, Accepted: 17 June 2020, Published: 22 June 2020
The aims of this study are to determine the population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani, associated with potato, and to assess its resistance degree to pencycuron and thiabendazole fungicides. A total of 57 strains of R. Solani were isolated from different potato crop fields in Mexico, and were classified according to their anastomosis group (AG) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based analysis. Then, the amplified fragments were digested with four different endonucleases (Mse I, Ava II, Mun I and Hinc II). The Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR (rep-PCR) technique was used to determine the genetic diversity in R. solani populations. Results obtained by PCR-RFLP showed that 81% of the isolates were identified as belonging to AG-3 group, 14% to AG1-1B and 5% to AG-11 group. In response to fungicides inhibition, IC50 between 0.014-0.039 mg a.i./L for pencycuron, and 0.82 to 2.91 for thiabendazole were determined, This IC50 value showed that the resistance factor (RF) values ranged from 1.4 to 3.945 and 0.27 to 0.97, respectively; this tendency suggests that isolates are susceptible to thiabendazole. The AG groups showed a heterogeneous resistance to pencycuron and thiabendazole, being more tolerant to these fungicides AG1-1B and AG-11 groups. The genetic analysis shows a low genetic diversity among (P-value 0.3225) and within (P-value 0.3275) populations; this can indicate a clonal reproduction and little parasexual cycle among the analyzed isolations.
Keywords: Anastomosis group – genetic-diversity – genetic-resistance – Mexico – PCR-RFLP – parasexual cycle – REP-PCR – Wright’s statistics
Authors: Nayaka S, Joseph S, Ngangom R, Tilotama K, Arnold PK
Recieved: 17 May 2020, Accepted: 16 June 2020, Published: 22 June 2020
In our continuous effort to explore the lichens in new and interesting areas FEEDS campus and SBG garden located in Manipur, a north-eastern state of India are surveyed. The study resulted in 47 species in FEEDS campus and 80 species in SB garden respectively, while both areas shared 22 species in common. The crustose lichens were more dominant in the area represented by Graphidaceae (16 spp.) and Pyrenulaceae (15 spp.). The species composition in both the sites represented photophilic communities such as graphidaceous, physcioid and parmelioid lichens. FEEDS campus had open areas with cultivated plants where as SBG garden had semi-evergreen forest at its initial stage of succession. The study also added 55 lichen species as new distributional records to Manipur.
Keywords: Biodiversity – Lichenized fungi – Mycobiota – North-east India – Taxonomy
Authors: Krishnapriya K, Vinjusha N, Anjitha T, Salna N, Arun Kumar TK
Recieved: 25 May 2020, Accepted: 20 June 2020, Published: 15 July 2020
Penicilliopsis clavariiformis, an ascomycete fungus is reported for the first time from Diospyros paniculata. Conspicuous clavarioid ascomata of P. clavariiformis were found emerging out of fruits and seeds of D. paniculata growing in a sacred grove in Kerala State, India. Based on morphological and molecular evidences, the identity of the fungus was confirmed.
Keywords: antibacterial – antifungal – biodiversity – clavarioid – Ebenaceae – Kerala
22. Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushroomsin Simbhanjyang, Makwanpur district, Central Nepal
Authors: Khadka B, Aryal HP
Recieved: 07 October 2019, Accepted: 30 June 2020, Published: 23 July 2020
Mushrooms are an important source of food among different ethnic communities in Nepal and are widely collected during rainy season. This paper includes documentation of wild mushrooms in the vicinities of Simbhanjyang, Makwanpur district, central Nepal. Semi-structured open ended questionnaire and Rapid Rural Appraisal were followed to get information about edibility of wild mushrooms from local harvesters. Forty-three species of mushrooms were documented. The collected species are saprophytic, parasitic, and mycorrhizal. Ethnic communities identify edible and other useful mushroom species based on traditional knowledge transferred from their ancestors orally which was in practice and tested through generations. Edible Boletus edulis, Russula virescens and medicinal Ganoderma tsugae are some potential non-timber forest products from the study area.
Keywords: Agaricomycetes – edible mushroom – ethnomycology – macrofungi – mushroom diversity
Authors: Bandara AR, Mortimer PE, Vadthanarat S, Xingrong P, Karunarathna SC, Hyde KD, Kakumyan P, Xu J
Recieved: 14 June 2020, Accepted: 09 July 2020, Published: 29 July 2020
Intraspecies colour variations in cultivated edible mushrooms present novel and potentially valuable alternatives to the research and cultivation industries. In this study, we collected, identified, and domesticated a white strain of Auricularia cornea from Thailand. The brown strain of A. cornea is one of the top two species of Auricularia cultivated and traded in Asia. Since both white and brown phenotypes of A. cornea belong to a single species, we established their similarities or differences. Both morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA sequence data were used to confirm the taxonomic placement of the white A. cornea strain in the same clade with the brown A. cornea. Nutritional analysis showed that fat, fiber, protein, and total soluble sugar contents of the white A. cornea were significantly higher than the commercially used brown strain. The melanin content of the white strain of A. cornea (less than 1.5 mg/100g) was not significantly different from that of the brown strain. This discovery may create new opportunities for the mushroom growing industry and for smallholder farmers in Asia.
Keywords: colour variation – Melanin – Southeast Asia – wood-ear mushrooms
24. Assessing the incidence of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) infection by fungi during harvest and storage in Cameroon
Authors: Akwa TE, Maingi JM, Birgen JK
Recieved: 29 June 2020, Accepted: 16 July 2020, Published: 19 August 2020
In most parts of Cameroon particularly the Menoua Division, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is usually consumed immediately after harvest or after a few months of storage. Contamination of common bean by fungi usually occurs in the field and during storage. It is possible that the incidence of food contamination by fungi varies between field and storage. The study aimed at determining the incidence of common bean infection by fungi during harvest and during storage. Six common bean cultivars both during harvest and storage were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference (P ˃ 0.05) between their incidences of infection by fungi during harvest. The incidence of common bean infection during storage was shown to differ significantly between each cultivar (P ≤ 0.05). A comparison of the mean incidence level of infection by fungi in the two groups of bean cultivars (cultivars during harvest and cultivars during storage) using the independent t- test analysis revealed a significant difference between their mean incidence of infection. The findings conclude that the incidence of common bean infection by fungi during storage is higher than during harvest in the Menoua Division. These findings will help to sensitise farmers on the improvement of bean storage conditions.
Keywords: Africa – Identification – Menoua Division – Mold – Significant difference
25. Pholiota polychroa and Porodisculus orientalis: two new additions to wood-rotting fungi of India
Authors: Chuzho K, Dkhar MS
Recieved: 04 November 2019, Accepted: 24 January 2020, Published: 11 September 2020
Pholiota polychroa, collected from Rusoma community forest and Porodisculus orientalis, collected from Puliebadze reserved forest stand, Kohima are reported as new additions to wood-rotting fungi of India. The genus Porodisculus is new to India as well. Furthermore, ecological, taxonomic and morphological descriptions of the two species are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: ecology – Nagaland – Puliebadze – Rusoma – taxonomy
Authors: Aman N, Khalid AN, Moncalvo JM
Recieved: 04 April 2020, Accepted: 04 August 2020, Published: 11 September 2020
Ahmadea, a monotypic truffle genus is described morphologically and its position in the family Pezizaceae (Pezizales, Ascomycota) is inferred from the phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences obtained from the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU). Its type species, A. dalanensis, is found in arid and semi-arid regions of Punjab, Pakistan, often occurring in Sorghum vulgare crop fields where it has been known for its edibility for ages. Relationships of Ahmadea with the related truffle genera Stouffera Kovács & Trappe, Temperantia K. Hansen, Healy & Kovács, Hydnobolites Tul. & C. Tul. and Delastria Tul. & C. Tul. are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Ascomycota – ITS paralogues – LSU – Pezizaceae – Pezizales – Sorghum – Taxonomy
27. Myxomycete colonization on translocated and non-translocated dead leaves from temperate and tropical forests
Authors: Rojas C, Stephenson SL, Rojas PA
Recieved: 30 July 2020, Accepted: 12 October 2020, Published: 09 November 2020
Samples of dead leaves on the forest floor were collected from a locality in central Costa Rica and another locality in northwest Arkansas in the United States and then were placed in fine-mesh nylon bags, autoclaved and left out in the field for four months. Half of the bags prepared with sterile material from each country were placed out in the country where they were collected, and the other half were placed in the other country. A characterization of forest structure and ground leaf chemistry was carried out for both localities and both leaf types. When recollected, all samples were processed for myxomycetes with the use of the moist chamber culture technique. The cultures yielded a total of 156 records of myxomycetes representing 16 species, but only 13 records and six species were isolated from the samples left out in Costa Rica. One hundred percent of cultures placed out in Arkansas produced myxomycetes, whereas only 68% of those placed out in Costa Rica were positive for these organisms. Differences in species richness and number of records were observed across forests where the samples were placed out, and no differences were observed based on the origin of the leaves. Results suggested that myxomycete colonization in the studied areas is primarily affected by the dynamics of the forest type and secondarily by substrate attributes. Some myxomycete species recorded on leaves with poorer chemical values are also consistent with field data. In the present study, the more open character of the temperate forest in Arkansas without a film of water layer covering the leaves on the ground seemed to have played a role in the establishment of myxomycete propagules in the sterile material during the time of the investigation.
Keywords: Arkansas – Costa Rica – myxogastrids – Pea Ridge – slime molds – Turrialba
28. Linking ectomycorrhizal mushroom species richness and composition with dominant trees in a tropical seasonal rainforest
Authors: Ediriweera AN, Karunarathna SC, Xu J, Bandara SMGS, Gamage A, Shaefer DA
Recieved: 03 June 2020, Accepted: 08 October 2020, Published: 12 November 2020
Vegetation, elevation gradient and soil temperature are considered as major drivers of ECM fungi species richness. ECM sporocarps were collected during rainy seasons for two years to study the link between the distribution of ECM mushrooms with Castonopsis echinocarpa, Parashorea chinensis, and Pittosporopsis kerrii with varying elevations and soil temperatures, in a tropical rain forest Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. For each tree species, 60 trees of approximately the same size were selected, where half of them were growing at higher elevation levels and the rest at lower levels. The highest total counts of ECM fungi, as well as the highest species richness were produced by P. chinensis followed by C. echinocarpa and P. kerrii. Highest species richness was shown in September by P. chinensis, while P. kerrii trees had the lowest count of mushrooms across rainy seasons. Species of Boletales were recorded with highest species richness followed by species of order Agaricales around both C.echinocarpa and P.chinensis. ECM fungi count declined with increased elevation. Furthermore, fungi species richness increased positively with increased soil temperature in a tropical seasonal rainforest.
Keywords: Ectomycorrhizal fungi – elevation – soil temperature – diversity – Xishuangbanna
Authors: Himani S, Krishnappa M
Recieved: 18 June 2020, Accepted: 02 October 2020, Published: 25 November 2020
Xylaria is the largest genus in Xylariaceae with wide range of hosts, and highly diversified species. In this study, Xylaria samples were collected from buried fruits of Diospyros melanoxylon in India. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data recovered supports our stain is Xylaria oxyacanthae, a new record to India. A detailed morphological description and comparison of closely related taxa are provided in this study.
Keywords: Fungal taxonomy – ITS – Karnataka – Molecular phylogeny
30. Optimal culture conditions and toxicity assessment of Fomitopsis feei (Fr.): a newly documented macro fungus from Philippines
Authors: De Leon AM, Dulay AR, Villanueva AL, Kalaw SP
Recieved: 23 April 2020, Accepted: 09 November 2020, Published: 27 November 2020
Mushrooms are known to be utilized by ethnic communities and Paracelis, Mountain Province is one of the places in Philippines inhabited by several of these native groups. Many studies have been conducted on various macrofungi, however no studies have been reported about Fomitopsis feei in the Philippines particularly in Paracelis, Mountain Province. It is a brown-rot bracket fungus, belonging to the family Fomitopsidaceae, characterized by a sessile effuse-reflexed basidiomata, with its color ranging from white to pinkish or brown. This mushroom has been reported to have antimicrobial properties, hence optimization of its culture condition could lead to its mass production for its biopharmaceutical potential. In order to develop a mass cultivation protocol of this mushroom, this study was conducted to determine the optimum conditions for its mycelial growth. The effect of different culture media using local substrates and evaluating environmental factors such as pH, aeration, illumination, and temperature were assessed. Optimum conditions for the secondary mycelial growth of F. feei produced very thick and largest radial growth on coconut water gelatin (CWG) medium (83.57 mm) at pH 6.5 (83.13 mm), in sealed (85 mm), dark conditions (85.00 mm) at room temperature (28-32oC) (81.96 mm). The most abundant mycelial growth was found in cracked corn as grain spawning material. This study also determined the teratogenic and cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extract of F. feei against the zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii. Fomitopsis feei exhibited teratogenic effects against the developing D. rerio embryos wherein growth retardation, malformation of tail, yolk deformity, pericardial edema, curved body, scoliosis and little pigmentation were the notable teratogenic effects of the ethanol extract to the developing embryos. Embryos treated with ≥1000 ppm recorded high mortality rate. Hatchability was most evident at lower concentrations ≤750 ppm. In terms of heartbeat, as the concentration of the extract increased, the heartbeat rate significantly decreased. For the cytotoxicity, 1250 ppm has the highest mortality rate with 73.33%. Using probit analysis, the LC50 is 534.676 ppm which is considered as mildly toxic. Thus, F. feei in higher concentrations exhibit toxic effect. These results indicate that F. feei has a pharmaceutical potential and could be harnessed for its bioactivities.
Keywords: cultivation – cytotoxicity – grain spawn – local substrate media – teratogenicity
Authors: Ayesha P, Maham A, Ariza A, Husnain H
Recieved: 06 March 2020, Accepted: 08 October 2020, Published: 27 November 2020
Ganoderma lucidum sensu lato, is an ancient Chinese mushroom commonly known as “Reishi” or “Linghzi” which has been used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Reishi is a basidiomycete widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Among 2000 classes of Reishi, only 6 types are commonly presented to be effective for therapeutic purpose. These 6 types were known as black, red, blue, yellow, white and purple, respectively. Main constituents of Reishi are Polysaccharides, Triterpenoids, Sterols and Proteins. Reishi has been clinically used as immune system modulator, antiviral, cytotoxic agent, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and also in the treatment of neurological disorders. The wide clinical scope of Reishi has influenced to name it in English with the nickname of “the mushroom of immortality”.
Keywords: Linghzi – Medicinal Mushroom – Reishi – Therapeutic value
Authors: Sesli E, Örtücü S
Recieved: 08 September 2020, Accepted: 20 October 2020, Published: 01 December 2020
Basidiomata of Cortinarius were collected during the field studies in 2019 and identified based on both morphological and molecular data. Three Cortinarius species viz. Cortinarius cadi-aguirrei, C. cinnamoviolaceus and C. variegatus are recorded for the first time from Turkey. Full descriptions, color figures, a simple phylogenetic tree and a short discussion are provided here.
Keywords: Agaricales – Basidiomycota – ITS – identification – taxonomy
Authors: Ediriweera AN, Karunarthna SC, Xu J, Hyde KD, Raspé O, De silva NI
Recieved: 03 June 2020, Accepted: 09 December 2020, Published: 29 December 2020
This review succinctly discusses data on morphology, systematics, ecology and biochemical properties of all the Entoloma species from Yunnan Province, China. We also propose directions for future research on Entoloma. Altogether, 8 species of Entoloma have been reported in the present study. Entoloma sinuatum and E.mengsongense showed the most contrasting variation in colour and size of the basidiomes while E. mengsongense and E. yunnanense were found to display wide variations in spore morphology. Most species are saprotrophic except E. caeruleoflavum and E. sinuatum which form mycorrhizal associations. Knowledge on biochemical and other chemical attributes of the genus are minimal although such details would help for better utilization of the genus.
Keywords: Checklist – Ecology – macrofungi – morphology – phylogeny
34. Plant growth-promoting characteristics of root fungal endophytes isolated from a traditional Cordillera rice landrace
Authors: Pablo CHD, Pagaduan JRR, Langres HC, Hipol RM
Recieved: 26 October 2020, Accepted: 18 December 2020, Published: 29 December 2020
This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the plant growth-promoting potential of fungal endophytes from the roots of Diket red, a traditional rice plant from the Cordillera, Northern Luzon. Eighteen morphospecies of filamentous endophytes were isolated of which twelve isolates were successfully identified to the species level. These isolates were identified as Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sp., Chaetosphaeria sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Hypocrea lixii, Microascus murinus, and Trichoderma harzianum. The identified twelve isolates were selected to screen in vitro for their plant growth-promoting characteristics, and evaluated in vivo for their beneficial effects on seedling vigor and early seedling growth. Isolate PPL14 produced the highest IAA at 55.5 μg ml-1 and M. murinus PPL10 produced the highest amount of IAA at 3.73 μg IAA mg-1 dry mycelia wt. The seedling vigor assay and in vivo plant growth promotion bioassay indicated overall positive effects of culture filtrate (CF) application of the endophyte isolates. Rice seeds and seedlings grown in aseptic condition and treated with endophyte CFs displayed significantly enhanced levels of germination, seedling vigor, shoot, root, and total plant growth, and biomass compared to non-treated control. Other plant growth-promoting characteristics were also studied including phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, ammonia production, and catalase activity. This study supports the potential use of fungal endophytes as bio-inoculants for plant growth promotion and enhancement of nutrient assimilation of agriculturally important crops.
Keywords: 18S rDNA – Endophytic fungi – Plant growth promotion – Rice landrace – Seedling vigor